A. Identify the causes of the war; include Balkan nationalism, entangling alliances, and militarism • Remember – after Napoleon the congress of Vienna met – they wanted to create a peaceful Europe with no major powers trying to get too greedy • So for about 30 years there was relative peace in Europe. However, tensions began to grow in the early 1900’s.
Nationalism, Imperialism, and Militarism • The growth of a feeling of devotion to ones country. • This can also be a feeling of superiority! People began to believe their country was the best. • This led to rivalry among the top nations – Britain, France, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Russia, and Italy. • These countries sought to expand their sphere of influence. • France wanted Alsace-Lorraine back from Germany and Russia and AH both wanted the Balkans.
Who were the Slavs? • Slav (people) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia • Balkans -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia
Imperial Europe’s major powers were in competition for colonies – this caused rivalry and mistrust between these countries. • This Mistrust lead to brinkmanship (being on the brink of war) • This let to a European arms race & militarism. • Militarism is the practice of having a large and strong standing army made up of citizens who love their country.
Entangling Alliances • Bismarck of Germany formed an alliance between Germany, Austria Hungary, Italy, and Russia – in order to maintain peace and Isolate France. Without allies he felt France couldn’t retaliate for its loss in the Franco-Prussian War. This alliance became known as the Triple Alliance (1881) • Kaiser Wilhelm II took over Germany in 1890 – forced Bismarck out.
Wilhelm didn’t keep up with the treaty with Russia. • Russia formed a treaty with France. • Two alliances Form – the Triple alliance & The Triple Entente.
Remember those Balkans? • The Slavic people in the Balkans began to break away from their Turkish (Ottoman rulers). • The Slavs especially Serbia wanted to extend its borders – Russia was cool with this b/c it is mostly Slavic and thought they could absorb Serbia. • Austria-Hungary not so cool with it – they didn’t want their Slavic people angry. • Serbs wanted to unite all Slavs – AH wanted to protect its territory. • AH promises to crush any Serbian effort to undermine its authority In the Balkans
The Spark • Serbian nationalist assassinated archduke Franz Ferdinand. • Assassin Serbian – Assassinated AH • AH used this as an excuse to punish Serbians and squash the growing rebellion. • AH delivered ultimatums to Serbs – they agreed to most – AH said naw and declared war.
Oh what a tangled web • AH declares war on the Serbs • Russia who is allied with Serbs mobilized along the German border to defend them. • Germany declared war on Russia. • Russia sought help from its ally France – Germany declared war on France. • Great Britain declared war on Germany. • The central powers – Germany and AH against the Allies-GB, France, and Russia – Japan joined, and Italy joined
WWI Cause I • Create a short summary of how Balkan nationalism (SLAVS & SERBS), militarism, and alliances contributed to WWI
b. Describe conditions on the war front for soldiers; include the battle of Verdun. Everyone thought the war would be over quickly. Summer 1914 – Fall of 1918 WWI is characterized by its use of trench warfare http://www.google.com/search?tbm=isch&hl=en&source=hp&biw=1080&bih=656&q=trench+warfare+ww1&gbv=2&oq=trench+warfare+ww1&aq=f&aqi=g10&aql=&gs_l=img.3..0l10.534l5699l0l5860l19l19l0l5l5l0l96l719l14l14l0.frgbld.
Trench Warfare • Battles conducted in trenches. • Soldiers lived, ate, slept, pooped, and died in these trenches. • The area inbetween the trenches is referred to no mans land. Most people didn’t come back from no mans land • This type of warfare led to a long drawn out war because little land was gained. • New weaponry made WWI deadly – Poison gas, the machine gun, the tank, and the submarine.
The Battle of Verdun • Battle between the French and Germans in 1916. • The British also got involved to help • Each side lost more than 500,000 lives • The territory gained was miniscule – The Germans gained 4 miles near Verdun The British gained 5 miles near the Somme valley.
O.K. • You guys know who wins – obviously • The allies – we will talk a little bit more about the war when we talk about Russia. • So – here is what I want you to do • Read pages 854 – 861 • Create some kind of graphic that shows what happened with the Treaty of Versailles. • Specifically how it impacted Germany & the mandate system that replaced Ottoman control.