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HOW WELL IS ARKANSAS PREPARING ALL STUDENTS FOR COLLEGE, CAREERS AND LIFE Why College- and Career-Ready Expectations for All?

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slide1

HOW WELL IS ARKANSAS PREPARING ALL

STUDENTS FOR COLLEGE, CAREERS AND LIFE

why college and career ready expectations for all
Why College- and Career-Ready Expectations for All?
  • A high school diploma is no longer enough; now, nearly every good job requires some education beyond high school – such as an associates or bachelors degree, certificate, license, or completion of an apprenticeship or significant on-the-job training.
  • Currently, far too many students drop out or graduate from high school without the knowledge and skills required for success, closing doors and limiting their post-high school options and opportunities.
  • The best way to prepare students for life after high school is to align K-12 and postsecondary expectations. All students deserve a world-class education that prepares them for college, careers and life.
slide3

A HIGH SCHOOL DIPLOMA IS NO

LONGER ENOUGH FOR SUCCESS

The changing economy is accelerating the

expectations gap, as careers increasingly require

some education/training beyond high school,

and more developed knowledge and skills.

jobs in today s workforce require more education training
Jobs in Today’s Workforce Require More Education & Training

Source: Carnevale, Anthony P. and Donna M. Desrochers, Standards for What? The Economic Roots of K–16 Reform, Educational Testing Service, 2003.

the rise of the middle skill jobs
The Rise of the Middle-Skill Jobs

High-skill jobs

Occupations in the professional/ technical and managerial categories.

Often require four-year degrees and above

Middle-skill jobs

Occupations that include clerical, sales, construction, installation/repair, production, and transportation/material moving.

Low-skill jobs

Occupations in the service and agricultural categories.

  • Often require some education and training beyond high school (but typically less than a bachelor’s degree), including associate’s degrees, vocational certificates, significant on-the-job training.

Source: The Future of Middle-Skill Jobs” by Harry J. Holzer and Robert I. Lerman, Brookings Institution, February 2009.

employment shares by occupational skill level 2006
Employment Shares by Occupational Skill Level, 2006

Source: The Future of Middle-Skill Jobs” by Harry J. Holzer and Robert I. Lerman, Brookings Institution, February 2009.

demand for middle skill workers outpaces arkansas supply
Demand for Middle-Skill Workers Outpaces Arkansas’ Supply

In 1950, 60% of jobs were classified as unskilled, attainable by young people with high school diplomas or less. Today, less than 20% of jobs are considered to be unskilled.

One result: In Arkansas, the demand for middle- and high-skilled workers is outpacing the state’s supply of workers educated and experienced at that level.

  • 83% of Arkansas’ jobs are middle- or high-skill (jobs that require some postsecondary education or training).
  • Yet only 27% of Arkansas adults have some postsecondary degree (associate’s or higher).

Sources: Carnevale, Anthony P. and Donna Desrochers (2003). “Standards for What? The Economic Roots of K-12 Reform,” Education Testing Services. http://www.learndoearn.org/For-Educators/Standards-for-What.pdf; Skills to Compete. http://www.skills2compete.org; Measuring Up (2008), “The National Report Card on Higher Education. “ http://measuringup2008.highereducation.org/index.php

the rise of the middle skill jobs8
The Rise of the Middle-Skill Jobs

Arkansas should be preparing students for the jobs of tomorrow, not the jobs of yesterday – or even today.

A quarter of American workers are now in jobs not even listed in the Census Bureau’s occupation codes in 1967.

Given the growth of new job sectors – most notably “green jobs” – it is common sense to provide all students with a strong foundation that keeps all doors open and all opportunities available in the future.

Source: Milano, Jessica, Bruce Reed & Paul Weinstein Jr. (Sept 2009). A Matter of Degrees: Tomorrow’s Fastest Growing Jobs and Why Community College Graduates Will Get Them. The New Democratic Leadership Council

arkansas middle skill jobs
Arkansas’ Middle-Skill Jobs

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Career One Stop. http://www.careerinfonet.org

america s international edge is slipping
America’s International Edge is Slipping

Source: OECD, “Education at a Glance,” 2007 (All rates are self-reported)

america s international edge is slipping11
America’s International Edge is Slipping

Source: OECD Education at a Glance, 2007; National Center for Higher Education Management Systems analysis of 2007 American Community Survey. http://www.higheredinfo.org

of every 100 9 th graders in arkansas
Of Every 100 9th Graders in Arkansas…

Source: NCHEMS Information Center for Higher Education Policymaking and Analysis. Student Pipeline - Transition and

Completion Rates from 9th Grade to College. www.higheredinfo.org/dbrowser/index.php?submeasure=119&year=2006&level=nation&mode=data&state=0

achievement remains low 8 th grade achievement over time
Achievement Remains Low: 8th Grade Achievement Over Time

% at or Above Proficient on 8th Grade NAEP

Source: National Assessment of Educational Progress. Analysis of data downloaded from www.nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/nde/

and gaps persist arkansas 8 th grade achievement gap
And Gaps Persist: Arkansas’ 8th Grade Achievement Gap

% at or Above Proficient on 8th Grade NAEP

Source: National Assessment of Educational Progress. Analysis of data downloaded from www.nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/nde/

graduation rates remain inequitable
Graduation Rates Remain Inequitable

Source: Education Week, Education Counts. Developed through the Custom Table Builder, http://www.edweek.org/rc/2007/06/07/edcounts.html

america s international edge is slipping17
America’s International Edge is Slipping

Source: OECD, “Education at a Glance,” 2007 (All rates are self-reported)

enrollment in college does not equal college readiness
Enrollment in College Does NOT Equal College Readiness

Percentage of U.S. first-year students in two-year and four-year institutions requiring remediation

Source: National Center for Education Statistics, Remedial Education at Degree-Granting Postsecondary Institutions in Fall 2000, 2003.

freshmen at two year colleges are more likely to require remediation
Freshmen at Two-Year Colleges are More Likely to Require Remediation

Source: National Center for Education Statistics, Remedial Education at Degree-Granting Postsecondary Institutions in Fall 2000, 2003.

most u s college students who take remedial courses fail to earn degrees
Most U.S. College Students Who Take Remedial Courses Fail to Earn Degrees

Percentage earning degree by type of remedial coursework

Source: National Center for Education Statistics, The Condition of Education, 2004:

% of 1992 12th graders who entered postsecondary education.

enrollment in college does not equal college readiness in arkansas
Enrollment in College Does NOT Equal College Readiness in Arkansas

Percentage of Arkansas’ first-year students in two-year and four-year institutions requiring remediation

Source:Arkansas Department of Higher Education, Comprehensive Arkansas Higher Education Annual Report, 2009. www.adhe.edu/SiteCollectionDocuments/Comprehensive%20Report/14%20-%20Remed_Report-FINAL.pdf

how many college students return their sophomore year and go on to earn degrees
How Many College Students Return Their Sophomore Year – and Go On To Earn Degrees?

Source: Measuring Up (2008). The National Report Card on Higher Education. http://measuringup2008.highereducation.org/index.php; National Center for Education Statistics (2003), Remedial Education at Degree-Granting Postsecondary Institutions in Fall 2000.

many college students in arkansas fail to earn a degree
Many College Students in Arkansas Fail to Earn a Degree

Percent of students earning a bachelors’ degree within six years, 2006

Source: NCES, IPEDS Graduation Rate Survey, analyzed by National Center for Management of Higher Education Systems.

the majority of graduates would have taken harder courses particularly in mathematics
The Majority of Graduates Would Have Taken Harder Courses, Particularly in Mathematics

Knowing what you know today about the expectations of college/work …

Would have taken more challenging courses in at least one area

Math

Science

English

Source: Peter D. Hart Research Associates/Public Opinion Strategies. (2005) Rising to the Challenge: Are High School Graduates Prepared for College and Work? Washington, DC: Achieve.

slide25

A MORE RIGOROUS & RELEVANT HIGH SCHOOL EDUCATION WILL OPEN DOORS FOR STUDENTS –

AND KEEP THEM OPEN

personal benefits of education in arkansas
Personal Benefits of Education in Arkansas

More education is associated with higher earnings and higher rates of employment.

While there may be jobs available to high school drop outs and graduates, they often pay less and offer less security than jobs held by those with at least some postsecondary experience.

The link between educational attainment and gainful employment is clear:

personal benefits of education in arkansas27
Personal Benefits of Education in Arkansas

Source: U.S. Census Bureau (2008). “Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement.” Figures are based on total person within the civilian labor force

the importance of rigorous course taking in closing gaps
The Importance of Rigorous Course-Taking in Closing Gaps

Source: Horn, L. and A.M. Nuñez (2000). Mapping the Road to College: First-generation Students' Math Track, Planning Strategies, and Context of Support. U.S. Department of Education. http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2001/2001153.pdf; Adelman, C. (2006). The Toolbox Revisited: Paths to Degree Completion from High School through College. U.S. Department of Education.

Students who take challenging courses and meet high standards are much more likely to enter college ready to succeed.

  • 87% of first-generation college-going students – who took a highly rigorous course of study in high school – persisted in college or earned a degree after 18 months.
  • Only 55% of first-generation students who took just a general curriculum persisted that long.

High school students who take advanced math double their chances of earning a postsecondary degree:

  • 59% of low-income students who took advanced math in high school earned a bachelor’s degree.
  • 36% of low-income students who did not complete the rigorous high school course of study earned a bachelor’s degree.
8 th graders taking algebra i
8th Graders Taking Algebra I

Source: Measuring Up, 2008:NCES, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) 2003, 2005 Mathematics Assessments.

students participating in advanced placement
Students Participating in Advanced Placement

Percent of all 11th/12th Graders Participating in Advanced Placement (2008)

Source: College Board, “National Summary Reports, 2008.” http://www.collegeboard.com/student/testing/ap/exgrd_sum/2008.html

arkansas students taking college admissions exams
Arkansas’ Students Taking College Admissions Exams

Source: ACT (2009), ACT 2009 Results. http://www.act.org/news/data/09/states.html; College Board, Mean SAT Critical Reading, Mathematics and Writing Scores by State. http://professionals.collegeboard.com/profdownload/cbs-2009-Table-3_Mean-SAT-CR-MATH-and-Writing-Scores-by-State.pdf

slide32

THE SOLUTION:

STATE-LED EFFORTS TO CLOSE

THE EXPECTATIONS GAP

All students deserve a world-class education that

prepares them for college, careers and life.

slide35

HOW WELL IS ARKANSAS PREPARING ALL

STUDENTS FOR COLLEGE, CAREERS AND LIFE