What is supervision? • Supervision is formally defined as a relationship between senior and junior member(s) of a profession that (a) is evaluative, (b) extends over time, (c) serves to enhance the skills of the junior person, (d) monitors the quality of the services offered by the junior person, and (e) acts as gatekeeping to the profession (Bernard & Goodyear, 1992, 2004)
Models of Supervision • Psychoanalytic (e.g., Binder & Strupp, 1997) • Person-Centered (e.g., Patterson, 1997; Searles, 1955; Muller & Kell, 1972) • Cognitive-Behavioral (e.g/, Woods & Ellis, 1997; Liese & Beck, 1997) • Developmental Models (i.e., Loganbill, Hardy, & Delworth, 1982; Stoltenberg, 1981; Stoltenberg & Delworth, 1987)
Developmental Models of Supervision • Developmental models of supervision ascribe to the idea that supervisees’ competence and needs change over time • For example, more highly structured supervision fits the needs of inexperienced therapists, although those with more experience seem to prefer a more collegial supervisory relationship (Ronnestad & Skovholt, 1993)
Why develop a new developmental model of supervision? • The current structure of developmental models of supervision lacks a framework that (a) helps the supervisor to manage the educational relationship effectively and (b) promotes the supervisee’s growth and developmental needs • We propose that attachment theory offers a theoretical vantage point from which to conceptualize supervision and address the issues cited above.
Attachment-Caregiving Model of Supervision • Please insert model here.
Attachment Activation – Safe Haven Function (Counselor’s Reactions) • Activation of the counselor’s attachment system is likely to occur before and during supervision due to the following: (a) being a novice at counseling and (b) exposing one’s work for evaluation • Counselor will engage in proximity-seeking behaviors with the supervisor
Attachment Activation – Safe Haven Function (Supervisor’s Response) • Supervisor needs to provide appropriate responses to the counselor’s attachment-related cues • Through the caregiving mechanisms of sensitivity, responsiveness, and flexibility, the supervisor provides the counselor with a safe haven • Function of afe haven: deactivate attachment, with the outcome: supervisee is aware of (a) not being solely responsible for the counseling, (b) the work being monitored and discussed in a safe atmosphere, and (c) having a place to access help and support
Deactivation of Counselor’s Attachment System • Through the deactivation of the counselor’s attachment system, the counselor’s exploratory system becomes primary again
Activation of the Counselor’s Exploratory System – Secure Base • By supplying the counselor with a secure base, supervisors anchor the counselor’s exploratory system and provide guidance as needed • Exploration facilitates the counselor’s development, because it helps the counselor to (a) regulate his or her emotions; (b) examine therapeutic conceptualizations, interventions, and skills; and (c) develop an identity as a counselor
Achievement of Increased Competence • Supervisee further develops by becoming proficient in counseling skills, gaining self-efficacy and self-mastery, being better able to define what it means to be a therapist, and internalizing a professional identity with confidence in the self’s work (Friedman & Kaslow, 1986; Watkins, 1997) • Separation-individuation occurs, where the counselor consolidates an identity separate from the supervisor, while acknowledging (a) the supervisor’s importance and (b) the learning that occurs through supervision (Watkins, 1990)
Case Scenario • Please insert the case scenario here
Reactivation of the Counselor’s Attachment System • The Attachment-Caregiving Model of supervision is not structured as a linear progression from beginning to mastery – the supervisee is likely to cycle through this process numerous times (e.g., due to client material or a personal or family issue)
Individual Differences in the ACMS • A secure attachment style is preferred and warranted in a supervisory relationship • Supervisees with more insecure attachment styles (i.e., Dismissing, Preoccupied, and Fearful; Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991) may develop a more secure attachment due to the optimal caregiving environment established by the supervisor
Individual Differences in the ACMS (Continued) • Three pathological attachment styles proposed by Pistole & Watkins (1995) and Watkins (1995), which affect the supervisory relationship and hinder the educational process of supervision: • Compulsively Self-Reliant • Anxiously Attached • Compulsive Caregiving • In order to attend to these differences in attachment, it is imperative that the supervisor is flexible and that interventions be individualized and responsive to the attachment-related cues of the counselor
Conclusion • The function of the supervisor as a caregiver is to provide proximity, a safe haven, a secure base, and protection for the counselor • The instillation of the caregiving mechanisms of sensitivity, responsiveness, and flexibility are paramount (Bowlby, 19088; Carnelley, Pietromonaco, & Jaffe, 1996; Pistole, 1999), because it is through these mechanisms that the relationship is both established and functions effectively, thereby setting the conditions for development to occur
Conclusion (Continued) • The developmental ACMS contributes to the literature, because (a) supervisors can use the framework in a way that facilitates counseling and learning, and (b) researchers will be able to use the model for research, once we have developed a supervisors’ version of the Counselors’ Caregiving Scale (currently in development)