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PREKINDERGARTEN – GRADE 12 SOCIAL STUDIES: A grade-by-grade overview of the New York State standards-based program New York State Education Department Curriculum, Instruction, and Instructional Technology Team Albany, NY 12234 www.emsc.nysed.gov/ciai/social.html.

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PREKINDERGARTEN – GRADE 12

SOCIAL STUDIES:

A grade-by-grade overview of the

New York State standards-based program

New York State Education Department

Curriculum, Instruction, and Instructional Technology Team

Albany, NY 12234

www.emsc.nysed.gov/ciai/social.html

what is a core curriculum
What is a “core curriculum”?

In 1996, the New York State Board of Regents adopted learning standards for all

content (subject) areas. Since then, the New York State Education Department

(SED) has issued a series of core curricula, which provide an additional level of

specificity to these learning standards.

The core curricula:

  • Contain the State’s expectations of what students must know and be able to do in relation to the content areas.
  • Present key ideas (broad, unifying, general statements of what students need to know) and performance indicators (statements of what students should do to provide evidence that they understand the key idea) for each standard area.
  • Are the foundation upon which State assessments are aligned and developed.
  • Are not designed as local school/district curricula.
  • Provide assistance to local schools/districts who maintain responsibility to design a

curriculum that meets the needs of their students.

  • Respect the tradition of local choice in New York State that empowers educators to select texts, identify products, and use a rich array of instructional strategies and activities to meet student needs.
what is a grade by grade overview
What is a grade-by-grade overview?

A focus on each grade level to help local schools and

districts plan their instructional program around the

learning standards, their key ideas and performance

indicators, and the content and skills of the standards-based

program.

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PREKINDERGARTEN

Self

  • The prekindergarten social studies program stresses:
  • An awareness of oneself as an individual, different from others but with similarities that connect oneself to family, the school, and the community.
  • An awareness of how humans and other living things grow and how things, events, and ideas change over time.
  • An awareness that they are members of a family and a classroom community who respect the uniqueness of others and themselves.
  • An increased awareness of the physical relationships between and among people and places. Students will begin to identify characteristics of the natural environment and human-built structures and understand how people and places are connected by transportation.
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PREKINDERGARTEN

Self

  • The prekindergarten social studies program stresses:
  • An awareness of the goods and services that meet needs and wants (e.g., food, shelter, clothing).
  • An increased awareness of the kinds of work people do and the variety of tools people use to produce goods and services.
  • An awareness of students’ rights and responsibilities as members of a classroom community. In prekindergarten, students begin to understand the meaning of rules and how they affect people in different situations.
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KINDERGARTEN

Self and Others

  • The kindergarten social studies program bridges the prekindergarten and grade 1 curricula by:
  • Developing awareness of similarities and differences that make each individual and group unique.
  • Recognizing how people, places, and events change over time.
  • Identifying characteristics of the physical environment and understanding how they affect what people do.
  • Recognizing that people use a variety of tools to do different kinds of work in different settings.
  • Understanding what rules, rights, and responsibilities are and how they affect people in different circumstances.
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GRADE 1

My Family and Other Families, Now and Long Ago

  • The grade 1 social studies core curriculum:
  • Helps students learn about their roles as members of a family and school community.
  • Develops a sense of individual identity and social interaction.
  • Explores an understanding of self, family, and school across the five social studies standards.
  • Helps students learn about families now and long ago.
  • Investigates different kinds of families that have existed in different societies and communities
  • Enables students to locate places on maps and globes.
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GRADE 1

My Family and Other Families, Now and Long Ago

  • The grade 1 social studies core curriculum:
  • Helps students to understand that maps are representations of physical features and objects.
  • Builds on the kindergarten-level program, encourages interdisciplinary learning, and assists in the development of content, concepts, and skills for the prekindergarten through grade 12 social studies program.
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GRADE 2

My Community and Other United States Communities

  • The grade 2 social studies core curriculum:
  • Explores rural, urban, and suburban communities in the United States by using the local community as an example to further understand the concept of community.
  • Examines community from a multicultural perspective that includes geographic, socioeconomic, and ethnic influences.
  • Emphasizes geography skills such as reading maps and globes, and analyzing the impact of the environment on the community.
  • Stresses the rights and responsibilities of citizenship in the community.
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GRADE 2

My Community and Other United States Communities

  • The grade 2 social studies core curriculum:
  • Investigates communities from the perspectives of the New York State social studies learning standards (History of the United States and New York State History; World History; Geography; Economics; and Civics, Citizenship, and Government).
  • Includes interdisciplinary learning to emphasize the content, concepts, and skills of the New York State prekindergarten through grade 12 social studies program.
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GRADE 3

Communities Around the World – Learning About People and Places

  • The grade 3 social studies core curriculum:
  • Is based on the five social studies standards.
  • Provides students with an opportunity to learn about the social, political, geographic, economic, and historical characteristics of the world’s peoples and cultures.
  • Helps students to understand and apply the concept of historical chronology.
  • Explores how different world communities meet their basic needs and wants.
  • Compares the role of citizens in different political systems around the world.
  • Is linked with the content and skills of grades 6, 9, and 10.
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GRADE 4

Local History and Local Government

  • The grade 4 social studies core curriculum:
  • Builds on students’ understanding of families, schools, and communities.
  • Highlights local political institutions and historical developments with connections to New York State and United States history.
  • Provides an in-depth study of government including the structure and functions of the different branches of local government.
  • Explores the rights and responsibilities of citizens.
  • Explores such civics concepts as power, equality, justice, and citizenship.
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GRADE 4

Local History and Local Government

  • The grade 4 social studies core curriculum:
  • Establishes a chronological framework to help students organize information about their communities in the context of New York State history.
  • Explores such themes and events as: Native American Indians of New York State, the European encounter, the colonial and Revolutionary War periods, the new nation, the period of industrial growth and expansion in New York State, and local and State government.
  • Is a foundation for the social history that students will study in grades 7 and 8.
slide17
GRADE 5

The Western Hemisphere: The United States, Canada, and Latin America

  • The grade 5 social studies core curriculum:
  • Stresses geographic, economic, and social/cultural understandings related to the Western Hemisphere – the United States, Canada, and nations in Latin America.
  • Builds on and reinforces historical and political content about the United States included in the grade 4 social studies program.
  • Uses contemporary case studies rather than a chronological approach, with the content understandings guiding selection of specific case studies and factual information.
  • Focuses on contemporary examples, whenever appropriate, to help students learn the grade 5 content understandings.
slide18
GRADE 6

The Eastern Hemisphere

  • The grade 6 social studies core curriculum:
  • Emphasizes the interdependence of all people living in the Eastern Hemisphere.
  • Focuses on geography and economics. The geography and economics standards are used to develop relationships and understandings about social/cultural, political, and historic aspects of life in the Eastern Hemisphere.
  • Focuses on major turning points of the Eastern Hemisphere that lead into the grade 7 social history of the United States.
  • Develops lessons and activities based on specific examples of nations and regions in the Eastern Hemisphere. Content examples should include cultures other than the student’s own, and a variety of geographic, socioeconomic, ethnic, and racial groups.
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GRADE 6

The Eastern Hemisphere

  • The grade 6 social studies core curriculum:
  • Highly recommends that lessons also compare and contrast specific information with similar data from the United States, Canada, and Latin America.
  • Impacts social studies teaching and learning in global history and geography, economics, and participation in government.
slide20
GRADES 7 and 8

United States and New York State History

Overview:

Social studies content in grades 7 and 8 focuses on a chronologically organized study of United States and New York State history. Course content is divided into 11 units, tracing the human experience in the United States from pre-Columbian times to the present, and tying political, geographic, economic, and social trends in United States history to parallel trends and time frames in New York State history.

Teachers are encouraged to develop and explore the 11 units of study within a two-year time frame. Knowledge of the needs of students and availability of instructional material and resources will assist in determining which unit to study in which grades. The grades 7–8 course builds on and seeks to reinforce the skills, concepts, and content understandings introduced in the K–6 program. It is, therefore, a vital link in the overall goals of the K–12 social studies program, and provides a solid content base in American history, allowing the grade 11 course to do greater justice to the study of the United States as a developing and fully developed industrial nation. By including hemispheric links to Canada and Mexico when appropriate, teachers will provide students a model for the global connections they will discover in the grades 9 and 10 social studies program.

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GRADES 7 and 8

United States and New York State History

Unit One: The Global Heritage of the American People Prior to 1500

I. History and the social sciences: The study of people

II. Geographic factors influence culture

III. Iroquoian and Algonquian cultures on the Atlantic coast of North America

IV. European conceptions of the world in 1500

Unit Two: European Exploration and Colonization of the Americas

I. European exploration and settlement

II. Colonial settlement: Geographic, political, and economic factors

III. Life in colonial communities

Unit Three: A Nation is Created

I. Background causes of the American Revolution

II. The shift from protest to separation

III. Early attempts to govern the newly independent states

IV. Military and political aspects of the Revolution

V. Economic, political, and social changes brought about by the American Revolution

slide22
GRADES 7 and 8

United States and New York State History

Unit Four: Experiments in Government

I. The Articles of Confederation and the critical period

II. The New York State Constitution of 1787

III. The writing, structure, and adoption of the United States Constitution

Unit Five: Life in the New Nation

I. New government in operation

II. The Age of Jackson

III. Preindustrial Age: 1790–1860s

Unit Six: Division and Reunion

I. Underlying causes of the Civil War

II. The Civil War breaks out

III. Results of the Civil War

slide23
GRADES 7 and 8

United States and New York State History

Unit Seven: An Industrial Society

I. The maturing of an industrial society in the second half of the 19th century

II. Changes in the social structure altered the American scene

III. The Progressive Movement, 1900–1920: Efforts to reform the new society

Unit Eight: The United States as an Independent Nation in an Increasingly Interdependent World

I. The United States expands its territories and builds an overseas empire

II. The United States begins to take a role in global politics

Unit Nine: The United States Between the Wars

I. The Roaring Twenties reflected the spirit of the postwar world

II. The Great Depression

slide24
GRADES 7 and 8

United States and New York State History

Unit Ten: The United States Assumes Worldwide Responsibilities

I. World War II

II. The United States as leader of the free world

III. The United States in the post–cold war world

Unit Eleven: The Changing Nature of the American People from World War II

to the Present

I. Postwar society characterized by prosperity and optimism

II. The United States begins a new century

slide25
GRADES 9 and 10

Global History and Geography

Overview:

The global history and geography core curriculum is designed to focus on the five social studies standards, common themes that recur across time and place, and eight historical units. Each unit lists the content, concepts and themes, and connections teachers should use to organize classroom instruction and plan for assessment. This curriculum provides students with the opportunity to explore what is happening in various regions and civilizations at a given time. In addition, it enables students to investigate issues and themes from multiple perspectives and make global connections and linkages that lead to in-depth understanding. As students explore the five social studies standards, they should have multiple opportunities to explore the content in and intellectual skills of history and the social science disciplines.

slide26
GRADES 9 and 10

Global History and Geography

  • For each historical era, students will investigate global connections and linkages:
  • Cultural Diffusion (Ideas/Technology/Food/Disease)
  • Belief Systems
  • Migrations
  • Trade
  • Multiregional Empires
  • Conflict
  • Methodology of Global History and Geography
  • A. History
  • B. Geography
  • C. Economics
  • D. Political Science
  • I.                  
slide27
GRADES 9 and 10

Global History and Geography

Unit One: Ancient World – Civilizations and Religions (4000 BC – 500 AD)

A. Early peoples

B. Neolithic Revolution and early river civilizations

C. Classical civilizations

D. The rise and fall of great empires

E. The emergence and spread of belief systems

Unit Two: Expanding Zones of Exchange and Encounter (500–1200)

A. Gupta Empire (320-550 AD)

B. Tang and Song Dynasty (618-1126 AD)

C. Byzantine Empire (330-1453 AD)

D. Early Russia

E. The spread of Islam to Europe, Asia, and Africa

F. Medieval Europe (500-1400)

G. Crusades

I.                  

slide28
GRADES 9 and 10

Global History and Geography

Unit Three: Global Interactions (1200–1650)

A. Early Japanese history and feudalism

B. The rise and fall of the Mongols and their impact on Eurasia

C. Global trade and interactions

D. Rise and fall of African civilizations: Ghana, Mali, Axum, and Songhai empires

E. Social, economic, and political impacts of the plague on Eurasia and Africa

F. Renaissance and humanism

G. Reformation and Counter-Reformation

H. The rise and impact of European nation-states / decline of feudalism

Unit Four: The First Global Age (1450–1770)

A. The Ming Dynasty (1368-1644)

B. The impact of the Ottoman Empire on the Middle East and Europe

C. Spain and Portugal on the eve of the encounter

D. The rise of Mesoamerican empires: Aztec and Incan empires before 1500

E. The encounter between Europeans and the peoples of Africa, the Americas, and Asia

F. Political ideologies: Global absolutism

G. The response to absolutism: The rise of parliamentary democracy in England

I.                  

slide29
GRADES 9 and 10

Global History and Geography

Unit Five: An Age of Revolution (1750–1914)

A. The Scientific Revolution

B. The Enlightenment in Europe

C. Political revolutions

D. The reaction against revolutionary ideas

E. Latin America: The failure of democracy and the search for stability

F. Global nationalism

G. Economic and social revolutions

H. Imperialism

I. Japan and the Meiji restoration

Unit Six: A Half Century of Crisis and Achievement (1900–1945)

A. World War I

B. Revolution and change in Russia – causes and impacts

C. Between the wars

D. World War II – causes and impact

I.                  

slide30
GRADES 9 and 10

Global History and Geography

Unit Seven: The 20th Century Since 1945

A. Cold war balance of power

B. Role of the United Nations

C. Economic issues in the cold war and post-cold war era

D. Chinese Communist Revolution

E. Collapse of European imperialism

F. Conflicts and change in the Middle East

G. Collapse of communism and the breakup of the Soviet Union

H. Political and economic change in Latin America

Unit Eight: Global Connections and Interactions

A. Social and political patterns and change

B. Economic issues

C. The environment and sustainability

D. Science and technology

slide31
GRADE 11

United States History and Government

Overview:

United States history is the history of a great experiment in representative democracy. The basic principles and core values expressed in the Declaration of Independence became the guiding ideas for our nation’s civic culture. United States history since the Declaration of Independence has witnessed continued efforts to apply these principles and values to all people. The adoption of the United States Constitution codified these principles, but, as the history of our nation shows, that document and its amendments represented only the first step in achieving “liberty and justice for all.”

One major goal of the State social studies curriculum, K-11, calls for students to learn about the structure and function of governments and to learn how to take on their roles as citizens. Students should understand those basic principles and the cultural heritage that support our democracy so that they can become informed, committed participants in our democracy. This core curriculum lists examples that describe how individuals and groups throughout history have challenged and influenced public policy and constitutional change. These examples and this course of study should help students understand how ordinary citizens and groups of people interacted with lawmakers and policymakers and made a difference.

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GRADE 11

United States History and Government

Unit One: Introduction

I. Geography

Unit Two: Constitutional Foundations for the United States Democratic Republic

I. The Constitution: The foundation of American society

II. The Constitution tested: Nationalism and sectionalism

Unit Three: Industrialization of the United States

I. The reconstructed nation

II. The rise of American business, industry, and labor, 1865-1920

III. Adjusting society to industrialism: American people and places

Unit Four: The Progressive Movement: Responses to the Challenges Brought About by Industrialization and Urbanization

I. Reform in America

II. The rise of American power

slide33
GRADE 11

United States History and Government

Unit Five: At Home and Abroad: Prosperity and Depression, 1917–1940

I. War and prosperity: 1917–1929

II. The Great Depression

Unit Six: The United States in an Age of Global Crisis: Responsibility and Cooperation

I. Peace in peril: 1933–1950

II. Peace with problems: 1945–1960

Unit Seven: World in Uncertain Times: 1950–Present

I. Toward a postindustrial world: Living in a global age

II. Containment and consensus: 1945–1960

III. Decade of change: 1960s

IV. The limits of power: Turmoil at home and abroad, 1965–1972

V. The trend toward conservatism, 1972–1985

VI. Approaching the next century, 1986–1999

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GRADE 12

Economics, The Enterprise System, and Finance

Introduction

Why Study Economics?

Commissioner’s Regulations

Social Studies Learning Standard 4: Economics

Social Studies Skills

Skill Development Procedures

How to Use This Core Curriculum

National Voluntary Standards for Teaching Economics

Jump$tart Coalition Personal Financial Management Guidelines

slide35
GRADE 12

Economics, The Enterprise System, and Finance

I. Living in a Global Economy

A. Economics and finance in our lives

B. Individuals have multiple roles in the global economy

C. The conflict between unlimited wants but limited resources

D. Productive resources help determine our wealth and our nation’s wealth

II. The United States Economic System

A. Characteristics, pillars, and goals of the United States economy

B. Challenges for the United States and other market-based systems

III. The Enterprise System and the United States Economy

A. Features of the enterprise system

B. Types of business organizations

C. Role of the entrepreneur

D. Starting and operating a business

E. The interactions between small and large businesses

F. Effects of globalization on business

G. Moral, ethical, and legal issues

slide36
GRADE 12

Economics, The Enterprise System, and Finance

IV. Labor and Business in the United States

A. Roles and responsibilities of workers

B. Composition of the workforce

C. Compensation and rewards

D. Labor-management relations

V. Money, Finance, and Personal Finance

A. Money

B. Introduction to personal finance

C. Instruments, institutions, financial markets, and investors

D. Interest and the cost of money

E. Credit

F. Managing your money

G. Careers in financial services industry

slide37
GRADE 12

Economics, The Enterprise System, and Finance

VI. Making Fiscal and Monetary Policy

A. Macroeconomics and challenges facing policymakers

B. Economic growth

C. Fiscal policy

D. Monetary policy and the Federal Reserve

VII. Impact of Globalization on the Economies of Other Nations

A. Definition of globalization

B. Trade–effects of globalization on the enterprise system

C. Foreign exchange

D. Foreign investment

E. Global economic and financial issues and crises

slide38
GRADE 12

Participation in Government

Introduction

Why Study Civics, Citizenship, and Government?

Education Law and Commissioner’s Regulations

Social Studies Learning Standard 5–Civics, Citizenship, and Government

Concepts and Themes for Social Studies

Social Studies Skills

How to Use This Core Curriculum

Core Curriculum–Summary

I. The Method

II. The Tools and Skills

III. The Content

Appendix A: National Standards for Civics and Government

Appendix B: Participation in Government Websites

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GRADE 12

Participation in Government

  • Content Questions:
  • Unit A: Philosophical Foundations and Comparative Perspectives
    • Question #1: What are the purposes and principles of government, politics, and the law?   
  • Unit B: Citizenship in Comparative Perspective
    • Question #2: What are the roles and rights of citizenship?
    • Question #3: How does someone become a citizen of the United States?
    • Unit C: Citizenship, Participation, and the Electoral Process
    • Question #4: Does your vote count?
    • Question #5: How does the political party system enable choice and opportunity for participation?
    • Question #6: How do you prepare yourself to vote?
    • Question #7: Why would someone seek public office?
    • Question #8: How do campaigns and elections enable choice and opportunities for participation?
    • Question #9: How do you become a more effective media consumer?
slide40
GRADE 12

Participation in Government

  • Content Questions:
  • Unit D: Legal Obligations
    • Question #10: Why are males ages 18 to 26 expected to register with Selective Service?
    • Question #11: What are the civic implications of taxation?
    • Question #12: How should you respond to a call for jury duty?
    • Question #13: What is the importance of the jury in a democratic system?
  • Unit E: Public Policy and Political Participation
    • Question #14: How do you find and evaluate information on public issues of interest?
    • Question #15: Which government(s) should respond to a particular public policy issue?
    • Question #16: How does the public policy process work?
    • Question #17: How does the public policy process reflect the purposes, values, and principles of
    • American democracy?
    • Question #18: How do citizens become more involved in working on a public issue or for a political
    • organization?
slide41
GRADE 12

Participation in Government

  • Content Questions:
  • Unit F: Legal Rights and Responsibilities
    • Question #19: What are the legal rights and responsibilities of the individual in civic life, the
    • workplace, and school?
    • Question #20: How do your legal rights and responsibilities change as you move about in the
    • international arena?
  • Unit G: Selecting a Culminating Question (optional)
    • Question #21: What type of public issue can be selected for a culminating project?
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