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Biology 220 Anatomy & Physiology I Unit II TISSUES Chapter 4 pp. 114-143 http://www.usc.edu/hsc/dental/ghisto/index.html http://medicine.creighton.edu/medschool/VideoAtlas/Cart.%20%26%20Bone%20Tissue%20source/webstuff/Fibrocartiage%203.html E. Gorski/ E. Lathrop-Davis/S. Kabrhel

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unit ii tissues

Biology 220

Anatomy & Physiology I


Chapter 4

pp. 114-143



E. Gorski/ E. Lathrop-Davis/S. Kabrhel

definitions and types
Definitions and Types
  • Group of cells with similar origin and function
  • 4 types
    • Epithelial tissues: cover surfaces, line cavities, form secretory parts of glands
    • Connective tissues: connect other tissues; support, protect; transport (blood); insulate (fat)
    • Muscle tissues: movement
    • Nervous tissue: coordinates activities by recognizing and responding to stimuli (changes in environment); transfer information
epithelial tissues


Single (simple) or

multi-layered (stratified)

Associated with underlying connective tissue


Epithelial Tissues
  • Features:
  • Closely packed cells with little extracellular matrix
  • Not innervated (receptors found in connective tissue underlying them)
  • Highly able to regenerate (mitotic cell division)
  • Avascular (no blood vessels; blood supplied by underlying connective tissue)
  • Polarized
  • Cells joined by cell junctions
epithelial tissues polarity

Apical surface

(free edge)

Basal surface

  • Basement Membrane (filtration and repair)
  • Basal lamina - associated with epithelium
  • Reticular lamina - associated with underlying connective tissue
Epithelial Tissues: Polarity



cell junctions
Cell Junctions
  • Desmosomes
  • aka. anchoring junctions
  • loose connections
  • help maintain integrity of epithelial tissue
  • allow materials to pass between cells
  • Tight junctions
  • tight seals between cells prevent movement of substances between cells

Fig. 3.4, p. 71

Gap Junctions - allow transfer of chemicals including ions from one cell to another adjacent cell; important to communications between some neurons

classification of epithelial tissues
Classification of Epithelial Tissues

Based on: *number of layers

*shape of cells

Fig. 4.1, p. 116

types of epithelial tissues
Types of Epithelial Tissues
  • Simple Tissues
    • Simple Squamous*
    • Simple Cuboidal*
    • Simple Columnar*
    • Pseudostratified Columnar*
  • Stratified Tissues
    • Stratified Squamous*
    • Stratified Columnar
    • Stratified Cuboidal
    • Transitional*
simple epithelial tissues
Simple Epithelial Tissues

Simple squamous epithelium

  • Filtration, exchange of materials, secretion
  • Locations:
    • kidneys (glomerulus; filtration of solutes from blood)
    • lungs (alveoli; exchange of gases between blood and air)
    • endothelium (lining of blood and lymphatic vessels, heart)
    • mesothelium (serous membranes of ventral body cavity)


simple epithelial tissues9

Simple columnar epithelium

  • secretion (e.g., enzymes of GI tract)
  • absorption (e.g., nutrients from GI tract)
Simple Epithelial Tissues
  • Simple cuboidal epithelium
  • Secretion and absorption
  • kidneys (controllable change of materials between blood and urine)
  • glands (secrete chemicals into ducts or blood)


  • Modifications:
  • Cilia (movement of materials; e.g., uterine tubes)
  • Microvilli (increase surface area for absorption; small intestine)
  • Gobletcells (secrete mucous; lubrication)


simple epithelial tissues10
Simple Epithelial Tissues

Pseudostratified columnar epithelium

  • secretion
  • all cells rest on basement membrane, but nuclei at different levels give the appearance of being multilayered
  • cilia (respiratory system -- moves mucus upward)
  • goblet cells (respiratory system -- secrete mucus that traps airborne particles)
stratified epithelial tissues
Stratified Epithelial Tissues

Defined by the shape of the outer cells

Stratified squamous epithelium

  • protection against abrasion
  • Keratinized (epidermis of skin)
    • contains keratin (water-proof protein) that protects against water loss
  • Non-keratinized (mouth, esophagus, vagina, anus)
    • lacks keratin; water may be lost across these surfaces


stratified epithelial tissues12

Stratified columnar epithelium

(ducts of male reproductive system, interlobular ducts of liver; functions: protection and secretion)


Stratified cuboidal epithelium

(ducts of sweat glands, salivary glands, mammary glands;

function: protection)



Stratified Epithelial Tissues
transitional epithelium

Distended, the uppermost cells are stretched into a squamous shape

Relaxed, the outermost cells become bulbous

Transitional Epithelium


connective tissues ct
Connective Tissues (CT)


  • generally, well-innervated and highly vascular (except cartilage)
  • consist of relatively few cells embedded in large amount of extracellular (outside the cell) matrix
  • each type of CT has its own associated cell type(s) and matrix
connective tissues ct15
Connective Tissues (CT)


  • is based on structure (type of matrix [ground substance, type and amount of fibers] and cells) and function
  • cells: each CT group has its own associated cell type(s)
    • “-blast” = mitotically active (produce new cells; e.g., fibroblasts, osteoblasts)
    • “-cyte” = mature cell (e.g., adipocytes, osteocytes)
  • all connective tissues arise from an embryonic form called mesenchyme
connective tissues matrix
Connective Tissues: Matrix

Matrix consists of ground substance and fibers:

  • Ground substance = thick (generally), amorphous (undefined structure), non-staining interstitial “fluid” (generally); consistency varies from rock-hard (bone) to watery fluid (plasma)
  • Fibers -- proteins of differing structure (and function)
    • collagenous -- most abundant; strong; resists pulling tension; composed of thick strands of collagen
    • reticular -- fine strands of collagen forming continuous network around blood vessels, soft organs, basement membrane
    • elastic -- consists of elastin; stretch and recoil without breakage; found in skin, lungs, blood vessels
connective tissues
Connective Tissues

Types of connective tissues:

  • Connective tissue proper

A. Loose connective tissue

-areolar, adipose, reticular

B. Dense connective tissue

- dense regular, dense irregular

  • Cartilage

A. Hyaline cartilage

B. Elastic cartilage

C. Fibrocartilage

  • Bone
  • Blood
connective tissue proper


Connective Tissue Proper
  • Two subclasses :A. Loose connective tissues
  • B. Dense connective tissues
  • Defined by:
  • fiber content varies with type of tissue
  • ground substance = hyaluronic acid (hyaluronidase - enzyme)
  • classification depends on type, amount, orientation of fibers
  • A. Loose CTs
  • Areolar CT
  • all three types of fibers
  • fibroblasts, macrophages, mast cells
  • water and solute reservoir
  • associated with most epithelial membranes
    • forms lamina propria of mucous membranes
    • forms papillary layer of dermis
connective tissue proper a loose cts con t


  • specialized for fat storage
  • cells = adipocytes
  • insulates, absorbs shock, stores energy
  • liposuction


  • Reticular CT
  • lots of reticular fibers
  • forms delicate, supporting networks (stroma) of some organs (e.g., spleen, liver, lymphatic tissue)


Connective Tissue ProperA. Loose CTs (con’t)
connective tissue proper b dense cts

Dense Regular (fibrous) CT

  • collagen fibers roughly parallel
  • resists tension primarily in one direction
  • poorly vascularized
  • forms tendons (muscle-bone); ligaments (bone-bone), aponeuroses (wide tendons)


  • Elastic CT
  • form of dense regular CT with lots of elastic fibers
  • recoils after stretching
  • around large arteries and large lymphatic vessels


Connective Tissue ProperB. Dense CTs

Provide strength and elasticity

connective tissue proper b dense cts con t


Connective Tissue ProperB. Dense CTs (con’t)
  • Dense Irregular CT
  • fibers irregularly arranged
  • resists tension in many directions
  • lower dermis, perichondrium, periosteum, and fibrous capsules around some organs (kidneys, testes, heart [fibrous pericardium]
  • Features:
  • avascular
  • perichondrium = dense irregular CT surrounding cartilage; supplies blood (brings nutrients/oxygen, removes wastes)
  • lack innervation
  • cells = chondroblasts (during cartilage formation) and chondrocytes (mature) found in openings called lacunae (lacuna)
  • Types
    • A. Hyaline Cartilage
    • B. Elastic Cartilage
    • C. Fibrocartilage
cartilage a hyaline


Cartilage: A. Hyaline
  • most abundant
  • collagen fibers make it strong, yet pliable (fibers not visible)
  • tip of nose, trachea, epiphyseal plate (growing bone), much of the fetal skeleton, articular cartilage
cartilage b elastic cartilage and c fibrocartilage

B. Elastic cartilage

  • elastic fibers allow recoil after bending
  • pinna (external ear), epiglottis


  • C. Fibrocartilage
  • compressible without permanent change
  • intervertebral disks, menisci (knee), symphysis pubis


Cartilage: B. Elastic Cartilage and C. Fibrocartilage
cartilage comparison
Cartilage Comparison
  • Two types of cartilage are seen here – what are they?




  • Features:
  • cells & cell fragments (suspended in liquid matrix = plasma)
    • leukocytes = white blood cells [WBCs]
    • erythrocytes = red blood cells [RBCs] and
    • platelets (cell fragments)
  • contains solutes (ions, nutrients, wastes) and suspended substances (e.g., large proteins)
  • fights disease (WBCs)
  • transports substances (e.g., nutrients, wastes, hormones, respiratory gasses)
  • forms the skeletal system (along with cartilage);
  • Functions:
    • provides support,
    • leverage for movement (muscle attachment),
    • protection,
    • hemopoiesis ( hematopoiesis) = blood cell formation
  • Features:
    • cells in hard matrix (calcium and magnesium carbonate and phosphate salts); collagen fibers and other proteins
  • Types:
    • spongy bone (plates of bone called trabeculae)
    • compact bone
      • based on osteon (formerly Haversian system)
compact bone

Osteocyte in lacuna

Lamellae - layers of matrix

Perforating canal

Canaliculi allows cells to communicate and pass nutrients/ wastes


Central (Haversian) Canal

(passageway for blood vessels and nerves)

Compact Bone


muscle tissue
Muscle Tissue


  • high rate of metabolic activity when active
  • highly vascular (needs good supply of oxygen and nutrients when active)
  • structure specialized for contraction to produce movement of body parts (including movement of materials through tubes)
  • cells = muscle fibers


A. Skeletal

B. Cardiac

C. Smooth

muscle tissue a skeletal muscle

Longitudinal Section


Transverse (cross) Section

Muscle Tissue: A. Skeletal Muscle
  • attached to bones
  • movement of skeleton; voluntary control of sphincters
  • striated (banding pattern), voluntary, multinucleate (develops from union of cells)
skeletal muscle tendon comparison
Skeletal Muscle/Tendon Comparison
  • Compare the skeletal muscle (m) with the tendon (t) – tendon is composed of dense regular CT


muscle tissue b cardiac muscle

Cardiac Muscle

  • striated, involuntary, uninucleate, branching
  • intercalated disks allow rapid spread of impulses from one fiber to another
  • myocardium (muscular wall of heart)


Muscle Tissue: B. CardiacMuscle
muscle tissue c smooth muscle




Muscle Tissue: C. SmoothMuscle
  • no visible striations, involuntary, uninucleate
  • walls of hollow organs, including blood vessels
nervous tissue
Nervous Tissue


  • specialized for recognizing environmental changes (stimuli; receptors; sensory function)
  • integrates sensory inputs and motor outputs
  • controls motor outputs (muscle contraction, glandular secretion
nervous tissue35


  • conduct information (sensation, motor impulses)
  • Neuroglia
  • protect, insulate, support neurons


Nervous Tissue
epithelial membranes
Epithelial Membranes


  • Consist of epithelial tissue and CT

Three types:

A. Serous Membranes

B. Cutaneous Membrane

C. Mucous Membranes

epithelial membranes a serous membranes
Epithelial Membranes:A.Serous Membranes
  • Consist of simple squamous epithelium (mesothelium) & areolar CT
  • Secrete serous fluid (lubricates to prevent friction and allow freer movement)
  • Line ventral body cavity (except pelvic cavity)
    • parietal layer - lines wall of cavity
    • visceral layer - overlies organs
a serous membranes con t
A. Serous Membranes (con’t)

Three ventral body cavities with a serosa

  • pericardium surrounds and covers heart
  • pleura overlies lungs and line thoracic cavity
  • peritoneum lines abdominal cavity and covers organs

Inflammation of serosa due to irritation and/or disease

  • in pleural cavity (pleurisy)
  • in abdominal cavity (peritonitis)
  • in pericardium (pericarditis)
epithelial membranes b cutaneous membrane
Epithelial Membranes: B.Cutaneous Membrane
  • forms skin
  • consists of:
    • keratinized stratified squamous epithelium (epidermis)
    • connective tissue (dermis)
      • areolar CT [papillary layer], and
      • dense irregular CT [reticular layer])
epithelial membranes c mucous membranes
Epithelial Membranes: C.Mucous Membranes
  • line body cavities open to the outside (digestive tract, respiratory tract, reproductive tract, urinary tract)
  • mostly non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium (or stratified columnar) or simple columnar (absorptive areas of gut)
  • “wet” membranes (bathed in secretions-mucus, urine)