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The New Russia & Independent Republics. Chapter 9. From Communism to Free Enterprise. Chapter 9 Section 1. Becoming a Free Market Economy. After the collapse of Communism, Russia moved toward a free market economy

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The New Russia & Independent Republics

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becoming a free market economy
Becoming a Free Market Economy
  • After the collapse of Communism, Russia moved toward a free market economy

Free Market Economy: People, rather than government, decide what goods and services to produce, how to produce, & who will buy them

i russia s economic regions
I. Russia’s Economic Regions
  • Moscow
    • Political & cultural center
    • Shift from heavy to light industry (ex. Clothing, electronics)
  • Port Cities: Kaliningrad & St. Petersburg
    • Kaliningrad-only port that stays ice-free year-round
    • Other port cities: Murmansk, Vladivostok
  • Siberia
    • Largest mineral supply in Russia
    • Hard to tap into resources because of harsh climate
  • Volga River/Urals
    • Volga carries almost ½ of Russia’s river traffic
    • Russia’s most productive farmland
    • Ural Mountains rich in minerals
ii environmental issues
II. Environmental Issues
  • Although Russians are moving toward a free market economy, they must balance making profit with protecting the environment
    • Nuclear Power Plants are in decay; leads to nuclear waste
    • Air Pollution from factories led to lower life expectancy
    • Water Pollution from poor sewer system, chemical weapons plants (from Cold War) & other sources
russia s people culture

Russia’s People & Culture

Chapter 9

Section 2

i politics
I. Politics
  • Russia is a democracy
    • Democracy: people elect their leaders
  • Russia is a federal republic
    • Federal Republic: power divided between national & state government with president
  • Democracy is dramatically different from Communism:
    • Leaders must follow same laws as regular people
    • Leaders must accept criticism from people
ii ethnic challenges
II. Ethnic Challenges
  • Majority Group: Russians, descendants of Slavs, are largest group
  • Minority Group: 100 ethnic groups

*Majority group controls more wealth & power.


Chechnya, has experienced fighting over the years because the Chechen people want to form their own country.

iii daily life
III. Daily Life
  • Urban (city areas) are large & modern
  • Development of suburbs as people move outside city limits
  • 70% of population is Russian Orthodox
    • Other religions: Muslims, Roman Catholic, etc.
iv russian literature music
IV. Russian Literature & Music
  • Stories passed down orally: skazki
  • War & Peace by Leo Tolstoy describes Russia’s defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte & France
  • Peter Tchaikovsky composed The Nutcracker ballet & 1812 Overture which also describes Russia’s defeat of France
the republics emerge

The Republics Emerge

Chapter 9

Section 3

i geography
I. Geography
  • Located south of Russia
  • Republics of Central Asia
    • East of Caspian Sea
    • Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan
  • Republics of the Caucasus
    • Located between Caspian Sea and Black Sea
    • Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia
ii republics of the caucasus
II. Republics of the Caucasus
  • Armenia
    • First country to make Christianity official religion (ca. 300 AD)
    • Capital, Yerevan, is one of world’s oldest (founded in 782 BC)
    • Armenia was controlled by many different nations, including the Ottoman Empire, who limited their freedoms & mistreated their people. During WWI, millions were deported by the OE, where historians estimate 600,000-1 million died of starvation. *This was the first genocide of the 20th century, though the Turks deny that it ever happened.
    • Split in half by Armenia
    • Majority are Muslims, which has caused conflicts with Armenian Christians
    • Authoritarian government is corrupt
    • Known for resorts located along the Black Sea
    • Has had conflicts with Russia after gaining independence because Russia has recognized claims of independence (as of 2008) of two regions below
iii central asian republics
III. Central Asian Republics
  • Central Asian Republics have become of interest to the rest of the world because of their vast natural resources
  • Known for limiting citizens’ basic freedoms & violations of human rights are common
  • All five countries are Muslim
  • Kazakhstan
    • Largest of the former Soviet republics
    • Large amounts of natural resources & most stable of all republics
  • Uzbekistan
    • Most live in fertile valleys & oases
    • World’s largest cotton producer (child labor used to harvest in many places)
  • Turkmenistan
    • World’s largest reserves of natural gas
  • Kyrgyzstan
  • Tajikistan