Nutrition 10 • Today Tues. May 9 • Topics • Finish Carbs • Diabetes (DM) • Market Assignment due today 20 points • Thurs. May 11 • Topic: Protein Calorie Estimate (PCE) and Diet Assignment • PCE 5 points Due Tues. May 16 • NO CLASS Thurs MAY 18 • Diet Assignment 20 points Due Tues. May 23
Blood Sugar Lows and Highs
Tools for Blood Sugar Level Control orTrouble • Goal BSL ~80-100 mg % • Insulin • Protein based, pancreatic hormone • Opens cells to let blood sugar inside • Lowers blood sugar level • Glucagon • Protein based, pancreatic hormone • Raises BSL by breaking down glycogen
How low can you go? sweaty, rapid heart rate Symptoms Low blood sugar grouchy, anxious dizzy, confused
Hypoglycemia (Low BSL) • Acute danger but uncommon condition • Need sugar (glucose, a simple carb) in blood 24/7 • To treat give simple carb (sugars) immediately • To prevent trickle in carbs over the day • No meal skipping • Healthy complex carb/protein at meals • Limit simple (especially‘added’) sugar • Why limit only simple sugar?
What’s to know bout Fast ‘n Slow…carbs? • ‘Fast’and‘slow’ refer to rate carb enters blood. Ideal is for carbs to trickle into blood! • Complex carbs….‘slow’ • Whole grains best…. enter blood most slowly • Enriched grains… enter blood more quickly (why?) • Simple carb….. ‘fast’ • Natural sugar (milk/fruit) enters blood quickly • Added sugars by far, enter blood most quickly!
Diabetes: a global problem Diabetes in the US! 1 of 9 in US has diabetes only 1 of 4 aware of it 1 of 3 Medicare $ spent to treat DM
Diabetes Mellitus (DM) • Hyperglycemia (high fasting BSL) • Cause: not enough or ineffective Insulin • Result: too much sugar in blood-not enough in cell • Consequence: cells/tissues are glucose starved • chronic inflammation occurs • blood lipids and pressure rise, arteries harden • tissue/cell function declines
DM: A chronic, progressive disease • Common consequences • Heart disease (#1 cause-diabetic deaths) • Blindness • Amputations • Kidney disease
Classifications of Diabetes • Type 1 • Uncommon • Inadequate insulin • Treatment requires insulin healthy diet regular exercise
Classifications of Diabetes • Type 2 • Majority of cases • Ineffective insulin • Treatment: Medical pills and/or insulin Lifestyle diet/exercise/stress mgt.
Tips to manage BSL • Trickle in healthy carbs over day • More healthy complex (slow) carbs • Less simple (fast) carbs • No meal skipping • Limit added sugar (~25g/35g) • Replace saturated (animal) with unsat. (plant) fats • Achieve a healthy weight • Quit smoking • Maximize exercise!!!!!
Concept Map: carb review Objective: learn to link terms with ideas covered in class Terms: Start with carbohydrate. Now add simple carb, added sugar, natural sugar, lactose, fructose, glucose, sucrose, complex carb, fiber, glycogen, starch, grains, honey, soda, plain yogurt, fruit and liver/muscle glycogen to your map Practice: Draw a diagram logically linking all of the terms. Identify blood, milk, fruit and table sugar and where glycogen stored. What is meant by the term ‘fast’ and ’slow’ carb?
Carbohydrate Simple carb fast Complex carb slow Fruit* Natural sugar Veg, grains, grain by-products Fructose Honey candy soda Added sugar Fruit* Sucrose Milk, plain yogurt Natural sugar Lactose Glucose Blood sugar No glycogen in food Glycogen Our storage form of glucose Muscle/Liver storage sites Fiber Starch & Fiber
Concept Map: Blood Sugar Level Terms: blood sugar (glucose), hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, glucagon, insulin, Type 1 diabetes (DM), Type 2 diabetes, ineffective insulin, inadequate insulin. Note: You may want to use descriptors along your arrows to clarify action occurring e.g. increase, decrease, etc. Draw a diagram logically linking all of the terms.