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Six Sigma . Six Sigma Revolution. Deming’s teaching about quality Quality initiatives: SPC, Just-in-time, TQM Motorola in 1980’s GE and AlliedSignal in 1990’s Radical Changes in products and services Companies:

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six sigma revolution
Six Sigma Revolution
  • Deming’s teaching about quality
  • Quality initiatives:
    • SPC, Just-in-time, TQM
  • Motorola in 1980’s
  • GE and AlliedSignal in 1990’s
    • Radical Changes in products and services
  • Companies:
    • TI, ABB, DuPont, Ford, Dow Chemical, Johnson Controls, BASF, American Express, Nokia, Toshiba,
what is six sigma
What is Six Sigma?
  • Vision
  • Philosophy
  • Company Strategy
  • Method
  • Culture
  • Tool
slide4

The Cost of Poor Quality (COPQ)

Warranty

Inspection

Tangible Quality Costs

Rework

Rejects

Scrap

Lost sales

Lost Opportunities

Late delivery

Hidden Factory

More Setups

Expediting costs

Engineering change orders

Lost Customer Loyalty

Excess inventory

Long cycle times

the nature of the process

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

The Nature of the Process

On-target,

less variation

Variation

Off-Target

Six Sigma goal identifies and controls process variations and targets.

Six Sigma methodology identifies processes that are off-target,

what is six sigma6
What is Six Sigma?
  • Integrates
    • Customer focus
    • Breakthrough improvement
    • Continuous improvement
    • People Involvement
  • Defines goals and performance metrics that yield clear and measurable business results.
  • Applies statistical tools to achieve breakthrough financial gains
six sigma focus
Six Sigma Focus
  • Meeting customer needs
  • Rapid breakthrough improvement
  • Process capability and improvement
  • Positive and deep culture change
  • Real financial results that impact the bottom line
slide9

Building the 6 Team

  • Executive Management:
    • Set meaningful goals and propel implementation of six sigma in the organization
  • Champion:
    • Create general scope and set strategic direction of the projects and teams
    • Drive project success by removing obstacles and allocating sufficient resources
  • Master Black Belt
    • Consults, trains and mentors the local organization on Six Sigma
  • Black Belt:
    • Delivers successful projects (high corporate gains) using the Breakthrough Strategy
  • Green Belt:
    • Delivers local projects (lower monetary gains) using the Breakthrough Strategy
  • Other key members:
      • Process Owner: maintains system improvements at project completion
      • Process Sponsor: provides resources, time, money and direction of your project
      • Financial Analyst: verifies the financial gains of the project
      • Team members: implement the steps for six sigma success
what is sigma
What is Sigma?
  • s (sigma) - A Greek letter
  • In statistics - the “standard” deviation from the average/mean
  • Assumption of Gaussian/Normal distribution
  • Six Sigma Methodology uses s to define the capability of a process
  • As the standard deviation of your process decreases, the “sigma level” of your process increases.
normal gaussian distribution
Normal/Gaussian Distribution

34.13%

34.13%

13.06%

13.06%

2.14%

2.14%

0.13%

0.13%

-3s -2s -1s m 1s 2s 3s

68.26%

95.46%

99.73%

68.26% of the population is within +/- 1

of the

??

?

process capability
Process Capability

6s process is to get acceptable results through:

  • Identification of variations
  • Quantification of variations
  • Elimination/control of variations

USL

LSL

Defects

Defects

Acceptable

six sigma goal
Six Sigma - Goal

s

Defects per

Million Opp.

1

691,462

308,537

2

66,807

3

6,210

4

233

5

3.4

6

six sigma practical meaning
Six Sigma -- Practical Meaning

99% Good (3.8 Sigma)

99.99966% Good (6 Sigma)

16,000 lost articles of mail per hour

5.4 articles lost per hour

22,000 checks deducted from the wrong bank account each hour

7.5 checks deducted from the wrong bank account each hour

500 incorrect surgical operations per week

1.7 incorrect operations per week

2 unsafe plane landings per day at O’Hare International Airport in Chicago

1 unsafe plane landing every four years

50 newborn babies dropped at birth by doctors each day

1 newborn baby dropped at birth by doctors every 2 months

** Source: Six Sigma Revolution, George Eckes

overall approach
Overall Approach

Define

Define Problem

Measure

Practical Problem

Analyze

Statistical Problem

Statistical Solution

Improve

Control

Practical Solution

the strategy
The Strategy

USL

LSL

  • Characterize
  • Optimize
  • Breakthrough

T

USL

LSL

T

USL

LSL

T

LSL’

USL’

the 6 sigma breakthrough method
The 6 Sigma Breakthrough Method
  • Define project and scope
  • Establish process

D

Define

  • Identify key input/outputs variables
  • Identify process capability/ measurement system

M

Characterization

Measure

5 Establish Product Capability

6 Identify Variation Sources

A

Analyze

7 Screen Potential Causes

8 Verify Variable Relationships

I

Improve

Optimization

9 Validate Measurement System

10 Implement Process Controls

C

Control

defining the process

Define

Measure

Analyze

Improve

Control

Defining the Process
  • Team members who understand the process
  • Put together a flow of the process
    • An common foundation for team activity
    • Identification of outputs for measurement and capability studies
    • Estimates of sigma levels at each step
project scope

Define

Measure

Analyze

Improve

Control

Project Scope
  • Problem statement
  • Goals/objectives for the team
  • Measurable gains (monetary terms)
  • Milestone
  • Customer needs and requirements
process mapping

Define

Measure

Analyze

Improve

Control

Process Mapping
  • What is process mapping?
    • Graphical depiction of the ACTUAL process
  • What will the tool identify?
    • All value added and non-value added process steps
    • Process inputs (X’s)
    • Process or product outputs (Y’s)
    • Data collection points
basic flowchart symbols

Define

Measure

Analyze

Improve

Control

Basic Flowchart Symbols

Activity

Start / Stop

Flow Line

Decision Point

A

Connector

A

basic structure

Define

Measure

Analyze

Improve

Control

Basic Structure
  • What are the steps to capture?
  • What are the operational steps?
  • What are the decision points?
  • Where are the problem area?
versions of a process

Define

Measure

Analyze

Improve

Control

Versions of a Process

What You Think It Is...

What It Actually Is...

What You Would Like It To Be...

preparing the process flowchart

Define

Measure

Analyze

Improve

Control

Preparing the Process Flowchart
  • Team Effort
    • Engineers
    • Line Operators
    • Line Supervisors
    • Maintenance Technicians
  • Inputs to Flowcharts
    • Brainstorming
    • Operator Manuals (SOP’s, AOP’s, etc.)
    • Engineering Specifications
    • Operator Experience
    • 5M’s and an E (Fishbone)
      • Machine (Equipment), Method (Procedures), Measurement, Materials, Manpower (People), Environment
measurement phase

Define

Measure

Analyze

Improve

Control

Measurement Phase
  • The input/output variables
  • The capability of the process
  • The defects in the process
  • Sigma level
purpose of measurement phase

Define

Measure

Analyze

Improve

Control

Purpose of Measurement Phase
  • Identify and define defects
  • Identify key input variables (X’s) and key output variables (Y’s)
  • Document the existing process
  • Establish a data collection system for your X’s and Y’s if one does not exist
  • Evaluate measurement system for each key output variable using C&E, FMEA, etc.
the importance of defects

Define

Measure

Analyze

Improve

Control

The Importance of Defects
  • Since Six-Sigma focuses on reducing defects, it is necessary that each project definition clearly specifies the defect(s) that will be reduced
  • Count the number of times the letter f appears in the following statement:

Six Sigma Revolution, George Eckes, pg 2

a simple test

Define

Measure

Analyze

Improve

Control

A simple test

13

  • What was your answer?

The final information are the results of years of scientific studies and were often combined with years of experience. We must often configure the files for the final report during the conference.

what causes defects

Define

Measure

Analyze

Improve

Control

What Causes Defects?
  • Variation due to:
    • Manufacturing processes
    • Supplier (incoming) material variation
    • Unreasonably tight specifications (beyond customer needs)
    • Unstable Parts and Materials
    • Inadequate training
    • Inadequate Design Margin
    • Insufficient Process Capability
how do we improve capability

Define

Measure

Analyze

Improve

Control

How Do We Improve Capability
  • Understand that the Outputs (Y’s) are determined by Inputs (X’s).
  • If we know enough about our X’s we can accurately predict Y without having to measure it.
  • If we don’t know much about our X’s, then we have to resort to inspection and test.
  • If can control the X’s, then we reduce the variability in Y, which decreases defects, and possibly, eliminates/reduces inspection and test.

Y = F (x1, x2, x3,…xn)

data collection plan

Define

Measure

Analyze

Improve

Control

Data Collection Plan

Six Sigma Revolution, George Eckes, pg 72

data collection data

Define

Measure

Analyze

Improve

Control

Data Collection Data
  • Type of Data
    • Discrete
    • Continuous
  • Sampling
    • Representative
    • Random Sampling
metrics what to measure

Define

Measure

Analyze

Improve

Control

Metrics: What to measure?
  • Defects per million opportunities (DPMO) drives plant-wide improvement
  • Sigma level allows for benchmarking within and across companies
calculating sigma level

Define

Measure

Analyze

Improve

Control

Calculating Sigma-Level
  • Sigma level
    • units: item produced or being serviced
    • defect: event that does not meet the customer’s requirement
    • opportunity: chance for a defect to occur
  • Calculate Defects per Million Opportunities (DPMO):

defects x 1,000,000

Total #

DPMO

=

(# of Opportunities for Error) x (# of units)

  • Go to a Sigma Chart and Estimate the Sigma Level

Six Sigma Revolution, George Eckes, pg 99

dpmo and sigma level

Define

Measure

Analyze

Improve

Control

DPMO and Sigma Level
tracking trends in metrics

Define

Measure

Analyze

Improve

Control

Tracking Trends in Metrics

Our objective is to track the trends in the Metrics to establish, based on fact, our improvements. These metrics can be productivity, defects, time, yield, etc.

purpose of the analysis phase

Define

Measure

Analyze

Improve

Control

Purpose of the Analysis Phase
  • Establish baseline capability for key output variables (potential and overall)
  • Examine both the process and data for analysis
  • Determine and validate the root causation of project problem
  • To reduce the number of process input variables (x’s) to a manageable number
  • To determine the presence of and potential elimination of uncontrolled variables
three sigma process

Define

Measure

Analyze

Improve

Control

Three Sigma Process

Centered

1.5 Sigma Shift

three sigma process39

Define

Measure

Analyze

Improve

Control

Three Sigma Process

Centered

1.5 Sigma Shift

six sigma process

Define

Measure

Analyze

Improve

Control

Six Sigma Process

Centered

1.5 Sigma Shift

analysis tools

Define

Measure

Analyze

Improve

Control

Analysis Tools
purpose of the improvement phase

Define

Measure

Analyze

Improve

Control

Purpose of the Improvement Phase
  • Key variables are identified and validated during this process .
  • Look to eliminate, reduce or neutralize the effects of the input or root cause.
  • Design experiments to manipulate the key input variables (X’s) to determine their effect on the outputs (Y’s).
  • Select the solution that impacts the root cause the most.
design of experiment

Define

Measure

Analyze

Improve

Control

Design of Experiment
  • Full Factorials
  • 2K Factorials
  • Fractional Factorials
doe example

Define

Measure

Analyze

Improve

Control

DOE Example
  • Objective: To reduce consistency variation in Y
  • Output: Variation (Lower is Better)
  • Full Factorial Inputs:
    • RPM (Lo, Hi)
    • Speed (Lo, Hi)
    • Time (Lo, Hi)

Main Effects Plot

16

14

12

10

8

R

P

M

Time

Speed

purpose of the control phase

Define

Measure

Analyze

Improve

Control

Purpose of the Control Phase
  • Develop and implement long-term control methods to sustain the gains identified
  • Document the control plan with specific roles identified
  • Monitor long-term delivered capability and performance
  • Verify benefits and cost savings
slide46

Define

Measure

Analyze

Improve

Control

Control Tools

Control

  • Control Plan
  • SPC
  • Mistake Proofing
  • Automated Control
dynamics of execution strategy
Dynamics of Execution Strategy

40 - 50 Inputs

M

Process Map/C&E

15 - 20 X’s

A

Capability/Multi-Vari

8 - 10 X’s

I

DOE

3-5 Critical X’s

C

Control Plan

who needs six sigma
Who needs Six Sigma?

As long as there is a process that produces an output, we can apply the Six Sigma Methodology. Every function has a customer and a deliverable.

six sigma project consideration
Six Sigma Project Consideration
  • Project is supportive of corporate objectives
  • Project is focused on an ongoing process / recurring events that is causing defects
  • A 70% reduction in defects results
  • Customer (internal or external) will see or feel the result
  • Takes 4-6 months to complete
  • Little or no capital required
possible six sigma projects
Possible Six Sigma Projects
  • Low yield rate
  • High operating costs
  • High customer failure/complaints
  • High scrap/rework
  • High inventory/WIP
  • High maintenance costs
  • Supplier product quality problems
  • Low productivity
  • Long cycle times
  • Low machine utilization
  • Inaccurate information
  • Missing information
  • Poor process control
  • Frequent set up requirements
  • Long set up time
  • Unpredictable product performance
six sigma success
Six Sigma Success

Visible top-down leadership and commitment

Education and training

Recognize and focus on customer needs

World-class quality

Establishing meaningful,

focused metrics

DMAIC - Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve & Control

credits
Credits
  • This module is intended as a supplement to design classes in mechanical engineering. It was developed at The Ohio State University under the NSF sponsored Gateway Coalition (grant EEC-9109794). Contributing members include:
  • Gary Kinzel…………………………………. Project supervisors
  • Phuong Pham.……………. ………………... Primary authors
  • L. Pham ………………………………….….. Audio voice
  • Reference:
    • Six Sigma Revolution, George Eckes, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 2001.
disclaimer
Disclaimer

This information is provided “as is” for general educational purposes; it can change over time and should be interpreted with regards to this particular circumstance. While much effort is made to provide complete information, Ohio State University and Gateway do not guarantee the accuracy and reliability of any information contained or displayed in the presentation. We disclaim any warranty, expressed or implied, including the warranties of fitness for a particular purpose. We do not assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, reliability, timeliness or usefulness of any information, or processes disclosed. Nor will Ohio State University or Gateway be held liable for any improper or incorrect use of the information described and/or contain herein and assumes no responsibility for anyone’s use of the information. Reference to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacture, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement.