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Research on temporal aspects of the group process – some examples Franziska Tschan & Joseph E. McGrath CONTEXT TIME Arrow, H., McGrath, J. E., & Berdahl, J. L. (2000). Small groups as complex systems: Formation, coordination, development, and adaptation . Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

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research on temporal aspects of the group process some examples

Research on temporal aspects of the group process – some examples

Franziska Tschan & Joseph E. McGrath

slide2

CONTEXT

TIME

Arrow, H., McGrath, J. E., & Berdahl, J. L. (2000). Small groups as complex systems: Formation, coordination, development, and adaptation. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

© IPTO; Université de Neuchâtel, 2006

slide3

DEVELOPMENTAL/LEARNING

ADAPTATION

OPERATIONAL PROCESSES

Purpose -project selection

Planning-structuring

Execution-regulation

© IPTO; Université de Neuchâtel, 2006

McGrath, J. E., & Tschan, F. (2004a). Dynamics in groups and teams: Groups as complex action systems. In M. S. Poole & A. H. van de Ven (Eds.), Handbook of organizational change and development (pp. 50-73). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press

analyze this
"Analyze this"
  • Groups of trained professionals workng in their real role (Nurses, MD‘s)
  • Working on a complex task (cardiopulmonary resuscitation of a witnessed cardiac arrest)
  • in a controlled environment (simulator setting, video)
  • General goal is to identify factors of collaboration that influence performance

© IPTO; Université de Neuchâtel, 2006

thinking time in group process research
Thinking „time“ in group process research
  • Time-related task analysis – e.g. Hierarchical task analysis
  • What aspects of time?
      • e.g. Use a „checklist of temporal concept“
  • Frequency
  • Rate
  • Duration
  • Proportional duration
  • Sequence/Simultaneity
  • Temporal location
  • Temporal patterning(regular/irregular)
  • Rhythms
  • Trends
  • Cycles
  • Coupled series of events
  • Functionally coupled sequences
  • Entrainment

Annett, J., Cunningham, D., & Mathias-Jones, P. (2000). A method for measuring team skills. Ergonomics, 43(8), 1076-1094Annett, J., & Duncan, K. D. (1967). Task analysis and training design. Occupational Psychology, 41, 211-221

© IPTO; Université de Neuchâtel, 2006

.

McGrath, J. E., & Tschan, F. (2004b). Temporal matters in social psychology: Examining the role of time in the lives of groups and individuals. Washington: APA

time related aspects of cardiopulmonary resuscitation task
Time-related aspects of cardiopulmonary resuscitation task
  • act fast– rapid onset
  • give continous support – no interruptions
  • ventilation:cardiac massage: 15:2 ratio
  • cardiac massage: rhythm 100/minute
  • set of three defibrillations
    • shortest possible interval between shocks
    • but wait to load andwait and check
  • epinephrine every three to five minutes
  • repeatcycle (cpr/defi/epi)
  • Stop treatment after xx minutes

© IPTO; Université de Neuchâtel, 2006

time related coordination requirements of cpr
Time-related coordination requirements of CPR
  • organize help fast
  • integrate new members that arrive at different times
  • present members adapt to incoming persons
    • especially if newcomers are more experienced /higher status
  • smooth synchronization between ventilaton / cardiac massage / defibrillation

© IPTO; Université de Neuchâtel, 2006

adaptation to incoming group members
Adaptation to incoming group members

Experimental conditions:

  • « All present »: 3 physicians present from the beginning (n=49 groups)
  • « Reality, with incoming members »: One physician present, calls others for help when emergency starts (n=50 groups)

Marsch, S. U., Tschan, F., Semmer, N. K., Spychiger, M., Breuer, M., & Hunziker, P. R. (2005). Performance of first responders in simulated cardiac arrests. Critical Care Medicine, 33(5), 963-967

Marsch et al., in prep.

© IPTO; Université de Neuchâtel, 2006

effects of adaptation to incoming members
Effects of adaptation to incoming members
  • Does not delay onset of cardiac massage
  • Delays first defibrillation 40 seconds**
  • Takes the group 55*** seconds longer to complete the first cycle of the algorithm
  • In the first three minutes, patient gets 16% less cardiovascular support (**), this is about half a minute
  • Decreases the likelihood of someone taking the lead from 95% to 70%(**)
  • If there is leadership in groups with incoming members, no differences in cardiovascular support over the first three minutes

© IPTO; Université de Neuchâtel, 2006

Marsch, S. U. et al., in prep.

study 2 adaptation to incoming high status member
Study 2: Adaptation to incoming high status member

© IPTO; Université de Neuchâtel, 2006

effect of adaptation to incoming high status member
Effect of adaptation to incoming high status member
  • Leadership is handed over to the resident
  • Directive leadership of resident should enhance performance
    • If measured for the whole phase 2: ns.
  • Critical time-slot: First 30 seconds after arrival
    • Directive leadership first 30 seconds: r= .522* with performance
  • Task analysis helped to identify critical time slot

Tschan, F., Semmer, N. K., Gautschi, D., Spychiger, M., Hunziker, P. R., & Marsch, S. (in press). Leading to recovery: Group performance and coordinating activities in medical emergency driven groups. Human Performance.

© IPTO; Université de Neuchâtel, 2006

study 3 information transmission to incoming members
Study 3: Information transmission to incoming members

© IPTO; Université de Neuchâtel, 2006

study 3 studying events in groups
Study 3: Studying events in groups
  • Incoming members need to be informed about patient, earlier treatment, etc.
  • Hypotheses:
    • Content of information influences transmission accuracy
    • How the information is generated influences accuracy
  • Identify ‚information-generating events‘ in groups
    • "information generation acts" (communication, actions)
    • "attentional focus during generation"
  • relate to accuracy

© IPTO; Université de Neuchâtel, 2006

information transmission to incoming members

under construction

Information transmission to incoming members
  • overall, 16.3 % of the information transmitted is inaccurate
  • depends on
    • content of the information
      • if about defibrillation or medication: 51% inaccuracy
    • circumstances of information generation
      • if defibrillation or medication and long episode (+ 1SD) = 76% inaccuracy
      • attentional focus of group on information during generation does not influence accuracy

based on the analysis of 386 information transmission episodes, estimated by a binomial multi-level model. Bogenstätter et al., in prep.

© IPTO; Université de Neuchâtel, 2006

studying time aspects in group processes without being a time researcher
Studying time-aspects in group processes without being a time-researcher
  • Time-sensitive task-analysis or: know where time is important
    • e.g. identify specific events: interruptions; transmission of information
      • related events vs studying the whole process
    • e.g. study specific phases
      • time-slots vs studying the whole process
  • to be continued

© IPTO; Université de Neuchâtel, 2006