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Research on temporal aspects of the group process – some examples Franziska Tschan & Joseph E. McGrath
CONTEXT TIME Arrow, H., McGrath, J. E., & Berdahl, J. L. (2000). Small groups as complex systems: Formation, coordination, development, and adaptation. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. © IPTO; Université de Neuchâtel, 2006
DEVELOPMENTAL/LEARNING ADAPTATION OPERATIONAL PROCESSES Purpose -project selection Planning-structuring Execution-regulation © IPTO; Université de Neuchâtel, 2006 McGrath, J. E., & Tschan, F. (2004a). Dynamics in groups and teams: Groups as complex action systems. In M. S. Poole & A. H. van de Ven (Eds.), Handbook of organizational change and development (pp. 50-73). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press
"Analyze this" • Groups of trained professionals workng in their real role (Nurses, MD‘s) • Working on a complex task (cardiopulmonary resuscitation of a witnessed cardiac arrest) • in a controlled environment (simulator setting, video) • General goal is to identify factors of collaboration that influence performance © IPTO; Université de Neuchâtel, 2006
Thinking „time“ in group process research • Time-related task analysis – e.g. Hierarchical task analysis • What aspects of time? • e.g. Use a „checklist of temporal concept“ • Frequency • Rate • Duration • Proportional duration • Sequence/Simultaneity • Temporal location • Temporal patterning(regular/irregular) • Rhythms • Trends • Cycles • Coupled series of events • Functionally coupled sequences • Entrainment Annett, J., Cunningham, D., & Mathias-Jones, P. (2000). A method for measuring team skills. Ergonomics, 43(8), 1076-1094Annett, J., & Duncan, K. D. (1967). Task analysis and training design. Occupational Psychology, 41, 211-221 © IPTO; Université de Neuchâtel, 2006 . McGrath, J. E., & Tschan, F. (2004b). Temporal matters in social psychology: Examining the role of time in the lives of groups and individuals. Washington: APA
Time-related aspects of cardiopulmonary resuscitation task • act fast– rapid onset • give continous support – no interruptions • ventilation:cardiac massage: 15:2 ratio • cardiac massage: rhythm 100/minute • set of three defibrillations • shortest possible interval between shocks • but wait to load andwait and check • epinephrine every three to five minutes • repeatcycle (cpr/defi/epi) • Stop treatment after xx minutes © IPTO; Université de Neuchâtel, 2006
Time-related coordination requirements of CPR • organize help fast • integrate new members that arrive at different times • present members adapt to incoming persons • especially if newcomers are more experienced /higher status • smooth synchronization between ventilaton / cardiac massage / defibrillation © IPTO; Université de Neuchâtel, 2006
Adaptation to incoming group members Experimental conditions: • « All present »: 3 physicians present from the beginning (n=49 groups) • « Reality, with incoming members »: One physician present, calls others for help when emergency starts (n=50 groups) Marsch, S. U., Tschan, F., Semmer, N. K., Spychiger, M., Breuer, M., & Hunziker, P. R. (2005). Performance of first responders in simulated cardiac arrests. Critical Care Medicine, 33(5), 963-967 Marsch et al., in prep. © IPTO; Université de Neuchâtel, 2006
Effects of adaptation to incoming members • Does not delay onset of cardiac massage • Delays first defibrillation 40 seconds** • Takes the group 55*** seconds longer to complete the first cycle of the algorithm • In the first three minutes, patient gets 16% less cardiovascular support (**), this is about half a minute • Decreases the likelihood of someone taking the lead from 95% to 70%(**) • If there is leadership in groups with incoming members, no differences in cardiovascular support over the first three minutes © IPTO; Université de Neuchâtel, 2006 Marsch, S. U. et al., in prep.
Study 2: Adaptation to incoming high status member © IPTO; Université de Neuchâtel, 2006
Effect of adaptation to incoming high status member • Leadership is handed over to the resident • Directive leadership of resident should enhance performance • If measured for the whole phase 2: ns. • Critical time-slot: First 30 seconds after arrival • Directive leadership first 30 seconds: r= .522* with performance • Task analysis helped to identify critical time slot Tschan, F., Semmer, N. K., Gautschi, D., Spychiger, M., Hunziker, P. R., & Marsch, S. (in press). Leading to recovery: Group performance and coordinating activities in medical emergency driven groups. Human Performance. © IPTO; Université de Neuchâtel, 2006
Study 3: Information transmission to incoming members © IPTO; Université de Neuchâtel, 2006
Study 3: Studying events in groups • Incoming members need to be informed about patient, earlier treatment, etc. • Hypotheses: • Content of information influences transmission accuracy • How the information is generated influences accuracy • Identify ‚information-generating events‘ in groups • "information generation acts" (communication, actions) • "attentional focus during generation" • relate to accuracy © IPTO; Université de Neuchâtel, 2006
under construction Information transmission to incoming members • overall, 16.3 % of the information transmitted is inaccurate • depends on • content of the information • if about defibrillation or medication: 51% inaccuracy • circumstances of information generation • if defibrillation or medication and long episode (+ 1SD) = 76% inaccuracy • attentional focus of group on information during generation does not influence accuracy based on the analysis of 386 information transmission episodes, estimated by a binomial multi-level model. Bogenstätter et al., in prep. © IPTO; Université de Neuchâtel, 2006
Studying time-aspects in group processes without being a time-researcher • Time-sensitive task-analysis or: know where time is important • e.g. identify specific events: interruptions; transmission of information • related events vs studying the whole process • e.g. study specific phases • time-slots vs studying the whole process • to be continued © IPTO; Université de Neuchâtel, 2006