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Pathogens and Plant Invasion Ecology. What do invasive plants have to do with us?. What do invasive plants have to do with us?. Framework for study of pathogen invasions. What do invasive plants have to do with us?. Framework for study of pathogen invasions Pathogens’ role in plant invasions.

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what do invasive plants have to do with us3
What do invasive plants have to do with us?
  • Framework for study of pathogen invasions
what do invasive plants have to do with us4
What do invasive plants have to do with us?
  • Framework for study of pathogen invasions
  • Pathogens’ role in plant invasions
what do invasive plants have to do with us5
What do invasive plants have to do with us?
  • Framework for study of pathogen invasions
  • Pathogens’ role in plant invasions
  • Mechanism for introduction of pathogens
slide6
Invasive species: The second biggest

threat to biodiversity today.

(Vitousek et al. 1997)

Photo: Charles Webber, California Academy of Sciences

ecosystem effects
Ecosystem Effects
  • Soil chemistry/nutrient cycling
ecosystem effects8
Ecosystem Effects
  • Soil chemistry/nutrient cycling
  • Fire frequency & intensity
ecosystem effects9
Ecosystem Effects
  • Soil chemistry/nutrient cycling
  • Fire frequency & intensity
  • Hydrology & sedimentation
ecosystem effects10
Ecosystem Effects
  • Soil chemistry/nutrient cycling
  • Fire frequency & intensity
  • Hydrology & sedimentation
  • Erosion
effects on biota
Effects on Biota
  • Displacement of native species
    • E.g., ice plant and native shrubs
effects on biota12
Effects on Biota
  • Displacement of native species
    • E.g., ice plant and native shrubs
  • Hybridization with native species
    • E.g., Spartine alterniflora and S. foliosa
effects on biota13
Effects on Biota
  • Displacement of native species
    • E.g., ice plant and native shrubs
  • Hybridization with native species
    • E.g., Spartine alterniflora and S. foliosa
  • Promote (or introduce) non-native animals & microbes
    • E.g., Myrica faya in Hawaii
what makes a species invasive
What makes a species invasive?
  • “The ability to increase when rare.” (Crawley 1997)
what makes a species invasive15
What makes a species invasive?
  • “The ability to increase when rare.” (Crawley 1997)
  • …Well, duh. So what makes a species likely to be a problem?
a cautionary tale baker s traits and usda gmo deregulation
A cautionary tale: Baker’s traits and USDA GMO deregulation
  • Keeler (1989) suggests using Baker’s traits as predictor of weed risk in GM crops
  • Williamson (1994) proves this method has little/no predictive value
  • As of 1997, APHIS continues to accept list as only evidence to discount ecological risk in petitions to deregulate crops
invasible ecosystems
Invasible Ecosystems
  • Disturbed areas
  • Ports of entry
  • Community composition/diversity
pathogens role
Pathogens’ Role
  • Natural Enemies Hypothesis: plants leave enemies behind; are better competitors
pathogens role20
Pathogens’ Role
  • Natural Enemies Hypothesis: plants leave enemies behind; are better competitors
  • Biotic Resistance Hypothesis: native pathogens prevent new plants from establishing
problems with empirical model
Problems with Empirical Model
  • Beneficial associations:
    • Natives
    • Exotics
  • Biotic resistance
slide24

Gilbert & Parker, UCSC

Photos: I.M. Parker, UCSC

california coastal clovers
California Coastal Clovers
  • 7 exotic, 9 native
  • Beneficial association with fungal endophytes in 2 most invasive
  • Leaf spot (Lesptosphaerulina, Pseudopeziza, Phoma) most severe on exotics (BR)
  • Leaf necrosis (Stemphylium)slightly more severe on natives (NE)
  • Damping-off most severe in natives (NE)
introduced plants can bring their pathogens
Introduced plants can bring their pathogens
  • Chestnut Blight
  • Dutch Elm Disease
  • Phytophthora infestans