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Welcome!. Christopher Kaufman, Ph.D. (207) 839-5548 (office) (207-272-4672 (cell) e-mail: [email protected] web: kaufmanpsychological.org. My Brain Made Me Do It!!. The Educator’s Guide to Social Cognition and Emotional Regulation. Secondary Version.

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Welcome!

Christopher Kaufman, Ph.D.

(207) 839-5548 (office)

(207-272-4672 (cell)

e-mail: [email protected]

web: kaufmanpsychological.org


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My Brain Made Me Do It!!

The Educator’s Guide to Social Cognition and Emotional Regulation

Secondary Version

Christopher Kaufman, Ph.D.

Licensed Psychologist


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In every person, even in such as appear most reckless, there is an inherent desire to attain balance.

-- Jacob Wasserman

German Author (1873-1934)


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Agenda is an inherent desire to attain balance.

8:30 “Mean Max” & Descartes’ Error: Why All Social & Behavioral Problems

Have a Biological Basis

9:00 Social cognition: What it is and why it matters

9:30 Emotion and its self-regulation

10:00 Break

10:15 Emotion and its self-regulation (Continued)

11:00 The biological bases of fear

11:45 Lunch

12:30 Strategies 1: Concrete implications for prevention and classroom management

(emphasis on the teaching of social-emotional literacy)

2:00 Mini-break

2:20 Strategies 2: Skill-building and collaborative teacher-student problem-solving

3:00 Case study discussions and Q & A

3:30 Adjourn


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Bwa is an inherent desire to attain balance. ha hahaha!!

Part 1

Mean Max

Oopsie ,

My bad . .

And . .

Descartes’ Error


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Meet ‘Mean Max’ is an inherent desire to attain balance.

His teacher’s admission: “I know it’s wrong and I’m kind of embarrassed I do this, but that’s what the other kids call him sometimes because he’s so aggressive and in your face - it’s hard not to view him as evil.”


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‘Descartes’ Error’ is an inherent desire to attain balance.(Damasio, 1996)

  • 17th Century French Philosopher

  • Advocated a dualist perspective of brain and soul

  • Viewed social/behavioral difficulties as problems with the soul (and, therefore, moral lapses)


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All social/behavioral problems are a product of both . . is an inherent desire to attain balance.

Nature

(genetics)

Nurture

(learning)

and/or


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Fact: All learning, is an inherent desire to attain balance.including learned behavior, is a function of . .

synaptogenesis


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Key Points: is an inherent desire to attain balance.

  • Cartesian notions of mind-body dualism have had major influence on western culture and philosophy over the centuries, and continue to shape the ways in which we view elements of behavior.

  • Although, as Goldberg (2001) points out, few in our society question the neuro-biological basis of language, perception, and motor functioning, the larger culture continues to brand elements of behavioral and social functioning as attributes of the ‘mind’ that exist separate from neurological function (Goldberg: “As if they were attributes of our clothes and not our body”).

  • Descartes’ error remains rampant in the educational community, with behaviors such as frequent aggression and noncompliance commonly attributed to ‘failures of the soul’ (“He’s such a brat!”) rather than to the neurodevelopmental profiles that contribute to them.


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It’s time to put aside Descartes’ error is an inherent desire to attain balance.

Sorry – I’d take it back, but, well, I’m dead.


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Genetic is an inherent desire to attain balance.

Transfer

(Nature)

Cognition

Behavior

Environmental

Factors

(Nurture)

Bottom line: All behavior problems have a neurological basis, just as all learning problems have a neurological basis!


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Your Turn . . . is an inherent desire to attain balance.

  • Select a kid on your past and

  • concurrent caseload.

  • Consider the extent to which

  • his/her social-behavioral

  • challenges stemmed from:

  • Biological factors (cognitive processing challenges; i.e., impulsivity, anxiety, mood labiality, attention deficits, etc.)

  • Habits/tendencies shaped by environmental influences


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Social Cognition is an inherent desire to attain balance.

Part 2

What it is

Why it matters


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Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory is an inherent desire to attain balance.

We tend to get stuck here!

SCT maintains that a person’s reality and social/behavioral presentation are formed through the interaction of environment and his/her cognitions.


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Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) requires educators to . . is an inherent desire to attain balance.

  • Understand that kids’ social/behavioral challenges flow from a mismatch between their cognitive capacities/individual constructions of reality and the environments that help shape the constructions.

  • Develop intervention packages that target both the cognitive/personal and environmental contributors!


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SLT also emphasizes the importance of observational learning; that is, learning by watching the behavior modeled by others. Mirror Neurons enable this!!


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Development of Social Cognitive Skill learning; that is, learning by watching the behavior

When kids are little, their behavior is highly regulated by adults, who teach directly (“Do this”) and indirectly (via modeling)

As kids get older, they increasingly substitute self-redirected internal controls for adult-directed external controls.

In order for this substitution of internal control for the external control to be successful, kids must possess developmentally appropriate levels of self-regulatory ability!


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Our Focus Today! learning; that is, learning by watching the behavior

To produce problems here!!

Combines with challenges/limitations here . .

Developmental weakness here . .


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Emotion learning; that is, learning by watching the behavior

Part 3

And . .

Its Self-Regulation


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AKA . . learning; that is, learning by watching the behavior

‘Affective Information Processing’


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The BRAIN: Its two hemispheres and four lobes learning; that is, learning by watching the behavior (source: Jacob L. Driesen, Ph.D.)


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The Cortical Hemispheres and Emotion learning; that is, learning by watching the behavior


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Left and Right Hemispheres and Emotion learning; that is, learning by watching the behavior

Hale & Fiorello, 2005

Right

Left

Associated more with positive affect

Left frontal area associated with approach behavior (and positive affect)

Associated more with negative affect

Right frontal area linked with avoidant and withdrawn behavior (and negative affect)

If the left hemisphere is underactive or dysfunctional, then negative affect and avoidance behaviors may occur. If the right hemisphere is underactive, then positive affect and approach behaviors may occur.


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Left learning; that is, learning by watching the behavior hemisphere lesions more associated with crying, depression, and catestrophic reactions

Right hemisphere lesions more associated with laughter, euphoria, or indifference

Hale & Fiorello, 2005


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The brain bottom to top: learning; that is, learning by watching the behavior Luria’s three functional blocks

Block 3 (Frontal Lobe):

Formation of intentions, and

direction of cognition &

motor activity

Block 2 (Three posterior cortical lobes): Analyze, code, and store information

Block 1 (Brainstem /reticular activating system): Regulates the energy level and tone of the cortex, providing it with a stable basis for the organization of its various processes.


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27 learning; that is, learning by watching the behavior


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Frontal-reticular-posterior cortical attention loop learning; that is, learning by watching the behavior

(Goldberg, 2001, p. 172)

Prefrontal Cortex

Posterior

Cortex

Reticular Activating

System

Breakdowns anywhere along this loop can lead to attention deficits and emotional/behavioral challenges!


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Under- learning; that is, learning by watching the behavior vs Over-Arousal of the Cortex:Implications for Social/Emotional Functioning

Under-arousal: Associated with extroversion, & ADHD Conduct Disorder

Over-Arousal: Associated with introversion and internalizing disorders (i.e., anxiety and depression)

Hale & Fiorello, 2005


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Four Cortical Lobes of the Brain learning; that is, learning by watching the behavior

Frontal Lobe: Output center, director of cognition and motor activity

Parietal Lobe:

Center of somatosensory and spatial processing

Occipital Lobe: Center of visual processing

Temporal Lobe: Center of auditory and language processing


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Pre-Frontal Cortex: Primary Site of learning; that is, learning by watching the behavior

Attention and Executive Function

Not fully developed

until the age of

21 – 25!

Vulnerable to injury!

A deficiency of the neurotransmitter Dopamine in frontal cortical areas has been linked to the expression of ADHD/EFD symptoms.


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Pre-frontal Lobe: learning; that is, learning by watching the behavior The portion of the brain that distinguishes us from this guy . . .

You wanna piece of me?!

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Implications of frontal lobe injury . . . learning; that is, learning by watching the behavior

Phineas Gage - Harlow (1868) ”He is fitful, irreverent, indulging at times in the grossest profanity, impatient of restraint or advice when it conflicts with his desires; at times pertinaciously obstinate yet capricious and vacillating. His friends and acquaintances said he was no longer Gage.”

I lost a piece of me . .

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Children born with (or who develop) problems in either the prefrontal cortex or its connections are often identified with . . .

ADHD

Oppositional Defiant Disorder (because of their low frustration tolerance and tendency to become easily irritated/annoyed)

An array of executive functioning problems

LD’s

Mood Disorders

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Time for a break . . prefrontal cortex or its connections are often identified with . . .

It’s #$%$# about time!


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Frontal Lobe Specifics prefrontal cortex or its connections are often identified with . . .(Adapted from Hale & Fiorello, 2004)

Dorsolateral

Pre-frontal Cortex

Planning

Strategizing

Sustained Attention

Problem-Solving

Self-Monitoring

-------------------------------

Orbital Prefrontal

Impulse Control

(behavioral inhibition)

Emotional Modulation

Motor Cortex


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Figure 1.1: prefrontal cortex or its connections are often identified with . . .The Two Strands of Executive Function

The Executive Skills

  • The Metacognitive Strand

  • Goal-Setting

  • Planning/Strategizing

  • Sequencing

  • Organization of Materials

  • Time Management

  • Task Initiation

  • Executive/Goal-Directed Attention

  • Task Persistence

  • Working Memory

  • Set Shifting

  • The Social/Emotional

  • Regulation Strand

  • Response Inhibition

  • (AKA: Impulse Control)

  • Emotional Control

  • Adaptability


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Your Turn . . prefrontal cortex or its connections are often identified with . . .

  • With a partner (it’s a pair-share!)

  • Pick one of the metacognitive EF’s

  • Brainstorm its possible impact on social/behavioral functioning


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Anterior Cingulate Cortex prefrontal cortex or its connections are often identified with . . .

Amen, 2000, as cited by Leonard-Zabel & Feifer, 2009

Heavily involved in emotional regulation.

Serves as our cognitive shifter (associated with cognitive flexibility)

Shifts attention between internal and external stimuli.

An essential connection point between the prefrontal cortex and the emotion origin centers

Helps kids shift among problem –solving options!!


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Consider the following scenario prefrontal cortex or its connections are often identified with . . .

Elizabeth, a fourth grader, has been looking forward to her best friend Megan’s pool party for weeks. Upon arriving at the party, she learns that Megan’s cousin, Stacy, will also be attending. Elizabeth has a strong dislike for Stacy, finding her in past encounters to be a bossy know-it-all who hogs all of Megan’s attention. Although disappointed that her time at the party won’t be quite as she expected, Elizabeth quickly decides to spend more time with other friends as opposed to challenging Stacy for Megan’s attention. Her private thoughts about this plan include, “I’ll swim with Carol and Heidi the most, and will try and spend time with Megan when Stacy’s doing other stuff.”


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AKA: ‘Response Inhibition’ prefrontal cortex or its connections are often identified with . . .

Picture a ‘rudderless ship’

‘Prepotent’ responses are not inhibited

‘Low road’ problem-solving (Goleman, 2006)

The cognitive workspace in which social situations are analyzed

This is also the cognitive workspace in which rationale social problem solving occurs

In other words, where the ‘thinking’ part of ‘stop and think’ occurs!!

Impact of specific EF’s on behavior (Part I)

Impulse Control

Working Memory


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This EF skill determines a kids’ ability to act strategically in social contexts

The planning part of social problem is impacted by this skill, as well as the ability to act on the plan (and change it on the fly as needed)

Life is about change

Kids with ‘balky cognitive shifters’ tend to struggle greatly with transitions

And with changes in routine

And with disappointments!!

Impact of specific EF’s on behavior (Part II)

Planning/Organization

Adaptability


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To appreciate others’ perspectives we must: strategically in social contexts

  • Be able to stop (suspend) our own perspectives/points of view

  • ‘Read’ the social context (including others’ nonverbal behavior)

  • Process this information in working memory long/well enough to get the sense of what others may be thinking.


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Impulse Control Deficits & strategically in social contextsSocial Functioning

Lack of frontal lobe filtering leads to:

  • Impulsive calling out in class

  • Impulsively saying the wrong thing (a lot)

  • Troubles with turn-taking

  • Troubles with perspective taking

  • Motor and verbal ‘overflow’

  • Lack of self-awareness and self-knowing

    All contribute to rejection by peers

Any filtering

going on here?


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And now, the primary source of emotional strategically in social contextssturm and drang . .

The amygdala

Be afraid – be very afraid . .


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The strategically in social contextsamygdala: Our primary source of:

FIGHT

Flight

&


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All roads lead to the strategically in social contextsamygdala

Cortical Pathway (cognitive connections with the amygdala)

Thalamic Pathway (lower order connections with the amygdala)

Source: thebrain.mcgill.ca


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Cortical Pathway ( strategically in social contextshigh and slow) vs. the Thalamic Pathway (low and fast)

Thalamic pathway: Shoot first and ask questions later.

Cortical pathway: Stop and think before reacting.

Source: thebrain.mcgill.ca


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Daniel Goleman: High and Low Road Emotional Processing strategically in social contexts

System 2

Low Road Processing

(automatic, prepotent,

initiated by the amygdala)

High Road Processing (rational, controlled, directed by the PFC)

System 1


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The strategically in social contexts‘balance of power’ between the Orbital PFC and Amygdala

Orbital

PFC

Amygdala


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Amygdala Hijack strategically in social contexts

Like any skilled air traffic controller, the thalamus can quickly react to potential threat. In that case, it bypasses the cortex -- the thinking brain -- and the signal goes straight to the amygdala. The amygdala can only react based on previously stored patterns.

--- Joshua Freedman

thalamus


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Who’s got the power? strategically in social contexts

Pre-frontal

Cortex?

Amygdala?

Or . .

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Manifestations of ‘Low Road’ Emotional Processing strategically in social contexts

  • Limited frustration tolerance

  • Limited adaptability (these kids get become easily ‘stuck’)

  • Limited alternate thinking skills (small problem solving repertoire)

  • Reflexive negativity (Ross Greene)

    In an nutshell, EFD kids become easily swamped by their emotions


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It’s helpful to think of these kids as being in a ‘cognitive wheelchair.’-- Ross Greene

Amygdala

Kaufman: It’s also helpful to think of these kids as

manifesting a clear mismatch in power between a very strong emotion-generation center of the brain and less developed emotion regulation centers.

Orbital PFC


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Part 4 ‘cognitive wheelchair.’

The Neurobiology of Anxiety


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An essential biological basis of fear: ‘cognitive wheelchair.’

AMYGDALAS LEARN

By jove, I think

I’ve got it!!!


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Emotional Learning ‘cognitive wheelchair.’(Sousa, 2009)

Implicit emotional learning

(AKA: fearing conditioning)

Explicit emotional learning

(Learning fear from others)


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Amygdale and Reactivity ‘cognitive wheelchair.’(Feifer, 2009, p. 40)

High amygdala reactivity: A need for minimal stimulation of the amygdala to activate the cerebral cortex. Often associated with anxiety disorders in kids!

Low amygdala reactivity: A need for greater stimulation and excitement to trigger the amygdala. Tends to be associated outgoing, disinhibited (‘stim –seeking’) behavior.


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Kids with anxiety disorders tend to: ‘cognitive wheelchair.’

Think too much (overactive/over-aroused prefrontal cortex)

Are hypervigilent and overly sensitive to environmental triggering of the amygdala.


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Anxiety and Depression on a ‘cognitive wheelchair.’Celluar Level

Neuron (Brain Cell)


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Neurotransmitters and Emotional Functioning ‘cognitive wheelchair.’

Norepinephrine

Like Dopamine, it fosters nand energy (also associated with motivation and drive)

Serotonin

Promotes feelings of calm, emotional stability, and sleep.

Dopamine

Promotes alertness, focus, and feelings of pleasure and reinforcement

GABA*

Helps induce relaxation and sleep. May balance excitement and inhibition.

*gamma-aminobutyric acid


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Neurotransmitter Reuptake and ‘cognitive wheelchair.’

Selective Reuptake Inhibition


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LUNCH TIME!!! ‘cognitive wheelchair.’


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Part 4: ‘cognitive wheelchair.’Preventing Problems and Building Social/Emotional Regulation Skills


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An essential fact with which to start the afternoon: ‘cognitive wheelchair.’

Social/emotional skills are just that – SKILLS.

They are skills that exist on a bell-shaped curve, just like academic and cognitive skills.

They are skills that can be accommodated to and taught to.


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Just as kids enter school every day with varying amounts of academic and cognitive skill, they enter school with greater and lesser amounts of social/emotional skill.


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Overarching Strategy Motto academic and cognitive skill, they enter school with greater and lesser amounts of social/emotional skill.for the Afternoon Session

It is essential to remember that the vast majority of kids with significant social/emotional/behavioral challenges have social learning disabilities!!


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An second essential fact with which to start the afternoon: academic and cognitive skill, they enter school with greater and lesser amounts of social/emotional skill.

80% of office referrals come from 11% of teachers . . .

Why????


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Kaufman’s observation after 25 years in the business . . academic and cognitive skill, they enter school with greater and lesser amounts of social/emotional skill.

True ‘dat …

Kids with substantial social/emotional regulation deficits do far better in some teacher’s classes than in others.


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Positive Behavior Intervention and Support (PBIS) is a process for creating school environments that are more predictable and effective for achieving academic and social goals. For some schools, PBIS will enhance their current systems and practices, for others it will radically change the culture for the better.


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How PBIS Works . . process for creating school environments that are more predictable and effective for achieving academic and social goals. For some schools, PBIS will enhance their current systems and practices, for others it will radically change the culture for the better.

A key strategy of the PBIS process is prevention. The majority of students follow the school’s expectations, but are never acknowledged for their positive behavior. Through instruction, comprehension and regular practice, all stakeholders use a consistent set of behavior expectations and rules. When some students do not respond to teaching of the behavioral rules, PBIS schools view it as an opportunity for re-teaching, not just punishment.


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Pills & Skills: process for creating school environments that are more predictable and effective for achieving academic and social goals. For some schools, PBIS will enhance their current systems and practices, for others it will radically change the culture for the better.How psychostimulant medications work

They increase the availability of dopamine in the central nervous system (by inhibiting the dopamine transporter – increasing the the time that dopamine has to bind to its receptors on other neurons)

They increase the receptivity of inhibitory receptor sites on neurotransmitters

In so doing, they chemically ‘ramp up the wattage’ in the pre-frontal cortex


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Prevention #1 process for creating school environments that are more predictable and effective for achieving academic and social goals. For some schools, PBIS will enhance their current systems and practices, for others it will radically change the culture for the better.: Build all students’ social/emotional literacy


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Emotional Literacy/Intelligence Improves Academic Performance!

Numerous studies have shown academic success to be strongly associated with several dimensions of emotional intelligence.

“Recent studies have revealed that an average student enrolled in a social and emotional learning program ranks at least ten percentile points higher on achievement tests than students who do not participate in such programs. ”

— T. Shriver and R. Weissberg, New York Times, August 16, 2005


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Second Step Performance!

Explicit emphasis on violence and bullying/aggression prevention and social problem-solving

Pre-K/K, Elementary, and Middle School Versions

Strong research base (now in use in 26 countries . . )

It’s use has also been correlated with academic success

Kids seem to like it a lot.


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Emotional Literacy Resources for use at the Performance!High School Level


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Prevention #2 Performance!: It all starts with . .

The settings in

which they must operate

Kids’

neuro-

developmental

profiles

‘Goodness of Fit’

(Greene & Ablon’s ‘Transactional Perspective’)


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Ross Greene’s ALSUP Performance!

Assessment of Lagging Skills & Unsolved Problems


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Best social environments for kids with regulation weakness include

  • Clear cut rules that have been explicitly taught and practiced

  • Lots of adult-directed activity,

    less kid-directed activity

  • Lots of adult supervision

  • Pick FEWER ACADEMIC battles

  • (go ‘core curriculum’)


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Goodness of fit: includeRecharge depleted self-regulatory systems

Neuropsychological fact 1: When individuals engage in any act of self-control, they become depleted and have less self-control available for subsequent acts of self-regulation (Baumeister et al, 2007).

Neuropsychological fact 2: Self-regulatory systems can be ‘recharged’ by putting people in a positive mood (happiness, relaxation, etc.)


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Good deeds change brains include

On a neurological level, it is far better to give than receive.

Some research has shown that thinking about some else’s problems lights up the same part of the brain that gets activated when we reflect on our own, while compassion registers in the brain’s pleasures zones.

And in the same way that it pays to eat broccoli several times a week, research suggests that you’ll be healthier and happier after offering up regular servings of compassion. Some studies suggest that five acts of altruism a week can substantially improve mood.

IMPLICATIONS FOR TEACHERS AND SCHOOL-BASED CLINICIANS?

theglobeandmail.com


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The goodness of fit between EFD and social settings also improves when . .

School staff uses their own emotions to control those of the kids around them (remember: mirror neurons).


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Reappraisal: improves when . .Help kids learn to recognize and change their distorted/unrealistic thinking

Classic cognitive distortions

  • All or nothing thinking

  • Overgeneralization

  • Catastrophizing

  • Disqualifying the

    positive


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Teaching anxious and easily angered kids PURPOSEFUL SELF-DISTRACTION

I’ll think about that tomorrow . .

  • Self-distraction is among the commonly used coping strategies among adults

  • Kids can also be taught this skill to help them . .

  • Delay gratification

  • Cope with frustration

  • Avoid or cope with anxiety

Teachers can and should explicitly teach this!!


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Teaching SELF-DISTRACTION


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Teaching Self-Regulation SELF-DISTRACTION

Modeling and having kids practice the power of . .

SELF-TALK


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Start with demystification SELF-DISTRACTION

Before demystification: Why does everybody hate me all the time?

Why do I freak out so easily and piss everyone off?

After demystification: You mean I’m not a horrible jerk? I just get angrier easier than other kids, and need to learn to control this better?


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Teaching Self-Distraction SELF-DISTRACTION

Teacher should model via role play and ‘think alouds’ how to . .

Cope with the annoying behavior of others

Cope with/set aside bothersome thoughts

Cope with/set aside self-defeating emotions


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For Middle and High School Students with Big Time Anger Management Issues

Arnold Goldstein, Ph.D.


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The ‘ZIPPER’ strategy Management Issuesfor avoiding/managing conflict

Z – Zip Your mouthStop and take a deep breath!

I – Identify the problemWhat do I need? What’s the problem?

P – PauseTake a moment to calm down before doing anything!

P – Put yourself in chargeTake control of my actions

E – Explore choicesWhat could I do? (E.g., walk away, change the subject, take a deep breath, ask an adult for help, etc.)

R – ResetPick an option


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Bad to better, or bad to worse? Management Issues

Bad thing happens to kid . .

The CHOICE ZONE

Choice made things bad to better?

Choice made things bad to worse?


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For kids heavily prone to Management Issuesamydala hijacks

Focus first and intensely on just getting them to stop and either walk away or get help.

That’s it.


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For older kids, focus the ‘choice zone’ thinking on . . Management Issues

  • Goals (‘Keep your eyes on the prize’)

  • Realistic options that are meaningful/relevant for them

What do you want?



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Surrogate frontal lobe: Management Issues

Teacher coaching at the start of the day and then, as necessary, throughout the day, can have profound impact on student’s behavioral presentation.

95



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97 Management Issues


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Responding effectively to ‘amygdala hijacks’ Management Issues

  • Approach low and slow!!

  • Stay nearby, but say little (raging amygdale make lousy conversational partners . . )

  • First change the body, than change the mind (or . . ‘first walk, than talk’)


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Manage the energy and frustration levels of kids with EFD by . .

Picking academic and social ‘battles’ very carefully

Teacher: John, I know you’re tired from the field trip and bus ride, but the school day isn’t over for another hour and you’ve got to write at least one paragraph on your field trip reflection sheet.

John: What?Forget it – I’m not doing it! Just give me a zero.

Teacher: Then I guess your choosing to stay with me after school today until you get it done. I’m not fooling around with this.

John:$%$#@ it! I don’t care!


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Social Mentoring . .

Mentor (a school social worker, pulling 10 year old Adam aside just before he enters the cafeteria): Okay, buddy, before you go in, let’s just quickly touch base on what you’re going to work on in the cafeteria and at recess today.

Adam (rolling his eyes and sighing heavily): I know, I know. I’m really going to try and eat neatly today, not talk with my mouth open and grossing the other kids out with my food and stuff, and at recess I’m going to stay really cool during four-square.

Mentor: And what have we talked about ‘cool’ meaning for you?

Adam: Cool means not changing the rules and just accepting it when I get out and not getting all mad at the other kids. I know! Can I just go in and eat now?! I’m really hungry.

Mentor: Yes, go and enjoy, and don’t forget that I’ll be watching for a while today while you’re eating and playing. Oh, and I’m really proud of how well you’ve been doing. No office referrals in two weeks. You rock.


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Key Behavior Plan Elements . .

  • Specification of target behaviors (one or two, tops . .)

  • FBA (Hypotheses about the function of target behaviors)

  • Accommodations (to improve goodness of fit between a child and his learning/social environment)

  • Skill building (training of replacement behaviors)

  • Motivational elements (reinforcers and consequences)


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Pick . .one behavior at a time, at one time of the day

Kids with EF deficits can’t change all problem behaviors at once.

If calling out is a major problem, than focus on hand raising first, targeting the most problematic time of the day. Than add other times/settings as the student is successful.

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Individual Behavior Plans (AKA: Positive Behavior Support Plans)

Let’s return to the case of . . .

‘Mean Max’


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