Introduction to Storage Appliance - NAS. Prepared by: Deo-Lama Bahadur Modified by: Kok-Lim.Liew. Logistics. Introduction Schedule (12 June 2009) Start time – 09:00 Breaks – 11:15 / 15:30 (15 mins each) Lunch – 12:30 – 14:30 Close – 17:00 Telephone and messages Food and drinks
Prepared by: Deo-Lama Bahadur Modified by: Kok-Lim.Liew
Overview of NetApp
Overview of Netapp Hardware
Overview of DataONTAP
With the evolution of HDD, storage solutions evolves into 3 core enterprise storage architecture
104 drivesFAS: One scalable architecture
NFS / CIFS / FTP / iSCSI over
FCPover2/4 Gbps FC
One or moredual-FCAL-attached disk shelves, with FC or ATA drives
FCAL: Fibre Channel Arbitrated Loop
ATA: Advanced Technology Attachment
14 x Fibre Channel disk drives
Shelf controllers (ESH)
Power supplies w/fans
FAS200 series controller(s): First to be embedded into the disk shelf by itself
NFS / CIFS / FTP / iSCSI over
Such “shrunken” controllers are sometimes called“storage controller modules”
Start with a DS14mk2 shelf
0, 1, 2, or 3 FCAL-attached disk shelves, with FC or ATA drives
Up to 20 15kRPM SAS disks
PCIe Expansion Slot
Storage controller B (added for active-active configs)
Storage controller A (present in all FAS2050 configs)
PCIe expansion slot (FC HBA shown)
Two 4Gbps FC ports
(autosensing for 1, 2 or 4 Gbps operation,target or initiator)
Remotemanagement1 GbE port
Two 1GbE copper ports
Even with system power off, LED will keep blinking to identify the failed component
Additional slots: 5 PCIe and 3 PCI-X, e.g., for 4 Gbps FC connection
4XFC (Fib)2 Gbps
4XFC (Fib)2 Gbps
40 drivesV-Series maxima are comparableto the corresponding FAS system
V-series versionsof FAS20x0not offered
IPor FCWhat is “near-line?”The information lifecycle view
* SAN implies FCP and iSCSI protocolsNAS Implies NFS and CIFS protocols
SAS disks same as FC disks – except for drive interface:
Network Appliance’s Data ONTAP provides a comprehensive software architecture
for it’s storage appliances to ensure that storage management is simplified, and
business continuance is maximised.
This graphic shows how the pieces of the
NetApp software architecture fits together.
–NVRAM operation (2)
NIC = network interface card
NVRAM is not necessarily a discrete, removable PCI card. On models like FAS200 and FAS2000 it is “on-board.”
A terminal or terminal server can be
connected to the storage appliance
console port via a standard RS232
connection. For example, a DB9 to
DB9 serial cable (null modem), with
the following settings for the serial
Bits per second: 9600
Data Bits: 8
Stop Bits: 1
Flow control: None
You can also access the storage appliance via RLM (Remote LAB Module).
Which ever method is used, console
access can be password protected.
To view all available commands, at the console prompt enter help or ?. To display a brief description
of each, enter help [command]
AccessRemote LAN Module(FAS2000, FAS3000 and FAS6000)
FilerView is an administration tool available on every NetApp storage appliance. This tool
allows IT administrator to use a web browser to access a consistent, easy-to-use graphical
interface for every administration tasks.
Administrators can set up and control any NetApp storage appliance remotely without
disruptions to business-critical operations. While file systems remains available to users, they
FilerView runs in local client web browsers and communicates to the storage appliance mostly
with HTML and SNMP protocol. It also establishes a real telnet session to the storage appliance
upon requesting the “Use Command Line” function
Accessing FilerView remotely requires either:
To access the command line via FilerView:
The FilerView interface allows only one telnet session at a time. If you try to open a telnet session in either FilerView or the Command Line Interface directly and you or someone else already has one opened, you will receive the following message.
Too many users logged in! Please try again later. Connection closed
When you leave the Use Command Line window in FilerView, the telnet session is closed and other
administrators can connect to storage appliance using telnet client software
Basic Storage Appliance Configurations
Many console commands provide filer systems configuration information. These commands
can be used to:
Following are some commands and their functions:
Example output from the sysconfig –v and sysconfig –r.
The system configurations is managed via the use
of options and configuration files.
Configuration files such as /etc/rc,
/etc/hosts must be edited to make non-options
Comparison of Options Commands and Configuration File Methods
Execute an options comand
Syntax = options [options name [value]]
Execute a vol options command
Syntax = vol options <vol-name>
Edit configuration files
Syntax = Depends on file being edited.
Edit file from a client machine.
The storage appliance’s boot configuration file
contains commands that are run automatically
whenever the storage appliance is booted.
The configuration file is named rc and is located in
the /etc directory of the appliance’s root volume. The
default root volume is /vol/vol0
The /etc/rc file contains:
Do not use Notepad to edit the /etc/rc file. Use vi
emacs or wordpad.
Step and actions
Managing Administrative Console User ID commands
An administrative user is a named account that exists on the filer.
Having multiple administrative accounts means that each administrative user will have a unique login name and password, which increases security.
Administrative console user have the same
privileges as root console users. Syslog
(/etc/messages) records console logins by
username, time of access and node
useradmin useradd login_name
Creates a new administrative user and password
useradmin userdel login_name
Deletes and administrative user
Lists administrative users
Changes console administrative user’s password for
the current user logged in.
The term adminhost is used to describe a NFS or CIFS client machines that has the ability to
view and modify configuration files stored in the /etc directory of the filer’s root volume. The
filer grants root permission to the administration host after the setup procedure is complete.
AutoSupport is a service provide by NetApp systems that monitors the functions of a
storage appliance. The AutoSupport daemon triggers automatic email messages to
members of Network Appliance Technical Support, alerting them to potential
storage appliance problems.
If necessary, technical support contacts the administrator via email and provides
troubleshooting information for resolution. Specific storage appliance conditional
events can be configured as traps that will trigger AutoSupport sequences.
AutoSupport is enabled by the command options autosupport.enable
[on|off]. We encourage all customers to enable AutoSupport. Our AutoSupport
mechanism can be proactive and we can be better able to assist you when you call.
Maintaining Host Information
Data ONTAP can resolve host information on a storage appliance using:
By default, the storage appliance first tries to resolve host names locally by searching the
/etc/hosts and /etc/nsswitch.conf files, then NIS, then DNS if needed. To specify a different search order, you must modify the /etc/nsswitch.conf file.
Note: DNS and NIS can be configured using the setup command during installation of a
storage appliance. As a result, many of the commands and files in this section are executed automatically. Entering NIS or DNS commands is usually done if:
Resolving Hostnames with the /etc/hosts File
Since the /etc/hosts file is checked first, it is important to keep the file current because updated changes take effect immediately.
The file can be edited using a standard editing program and should include a blank line at the end. The format of the /etc/hosts entries is as follows:
IP address hostname alias(es)
Example /etc/hosts file
#Auto-generated by setup Tue Jul 8 16:27:32 GMT 2005
192.168.1.10 toaster_black toaster
Using FilerView to configure DNS/NIS services Domain Name Service matches domain names to IP addresses and enables you to centrally maintain host information so that you do not have to update the /etc/hosts file every time you add a new host to the network.
If DNS has not been configured and you want to use DNS for hostname resolution, follow
The /etc/nsswitch.conf file lists the order in which a storage appliance searches for
resolution. To resolve hostnames, for example, a storage appliance uses the search order
listed for hosts and, in this example, first searches using /etc/hosts file, then NIS, and then
Each line in the /etc/nsswitch.conf file uses the format:
You can modify the file at any time to change the default search order for hostname
Once the storage appliance resolves the hostname, the search ends.
Even though a storage appliance may have multiple network interfaces it does not function as a router for other network hosts. It does, however, route its own packets.
To display the default and explicit routes for routing its own packets, you can check the current routing table using the netstat –r command. The netstat command displays network-related data structures.
For 6.0 and later versions of Data ONTAP, you can set the default route during initial setup or later by modifying the /etc/rc file (to make the command persistent across reboots), or by using router discovery or RIP.
For Data ONTAP versions before 6.0, if explicit routes are not listed in the routing table, the
storage appliance uses the default route, specified in the /etc/dgateways file.
Either use "rdfile /etc/rc" to view content of the file or "wrfile /etc/rc" to edit content of the
Routed is a daemon invoked at boot time to
manage the network routing tables. The
daemon processes incoming packets and
periodically checks the routing table entries.
To display the status of the default gateway
list, you can use the status option to display
the following information:
Naming Single Interfaces
Storage appliances support four
network types for NAS:
Each port on an interface card is
named using a combination of
interface type and slot number. The
Ethernet port on the system board,
for example, is e0.
Naming Quad-Port Interfaces
Some Ethernet interface cards
support four ports and are referred to
as quad-port interfaces. A storage
appliance refers to each port on the
card using a letter. The four ports are
numbered from top to bottom on
the card and lettered a-d from top to
bottom when named.
What is a VIF?
A VIF is a group of Ethernet interfaces working together as a logical unit. You can
group up to four Ethernet interfaces into a single logical interface.
The advantages of VIFs over single network interfaces are threefold:
VIFs are also known as trunks, virtual aggregations, link aggregations, or EtherChannel virtual interfaces.
Trunks can be single-mode or multi-mode. In a
singlemode trunk, one interface is active while the
other interface is on standby. Failure signals the
inactive interface to take over and maintain the
connection with the switch.
In the graphic, the active link on e0 fails. The e1
interface then takes over and becomes the active
link to the switch.
In a multi-mode trunk, all interfaces are active,
providing greater speed when multiple hosts
access the storage appliance. The switch
determines how the load is balanced among the
interfaces and must therefore support manually
In the figure to the right, four active interfaces
comprise the multi-mode trunk MultiTrunk1. If any
three interfaces fail, the storage appliance still
remains connected to the network.