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History of Computing 1 Foundation Computing If the automobile had followed the same development cycle as the computer, a Rolls Royce would today cost $100, get one million miles to the gallon, and explode once a year, killing everyone inside. Robert X. Cringely Quiz

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history of computing 1
History of Computing 1

Foundation Computing

If the automobile had followed the same development cycle as the computer, a Rolls Royce would today cost $100, get one million miles to the gallon, and explode once a year, killing everyone inside.

Robert X. Cringely

slide2
Quiz
  • What is the difference between Insert and Overstrike modes?
quiz 2
Quiz (2)
  • Which shortcut combination should be used to cut and paste text?
    • Ctrl-Alt-Del
    • Ctrl-x followed by Ctrl-v
    • Ctrl-c followed by Ctrl-v
    • Win-e
quiz 3
Quiz (3)
  • What should you do if you’ve accidentally deleted highlighted text?
    • Panic
    • Call Microsoft for help
    • Post a message to the bulletin board
    • Use the shortcut Ctrl-z or the undo command immediately
history of computing
History of Computing
  • Why should we study the history of computing?
  • The past shapes the present and the present will affect the future.
  • Studying the history of computing gives an appreciation of what technology we have now, and what may come in the future.
hist of computing timeline
Hist. of Computing Timeline
  • Generations
    • Mechanical (Before 1945)
    • Vacuum Tubes (1945 – 1954)
    • Transistors (1954 – 1963)
    • Integrated Circuits (1963 - 1973)
    • Personal Computers (1973 – ???)
    • Parallel Computers, Networking
    • Mobile Computing
quote of the day
Quote of the day

If the automobile had followed the same development cycle as the computer, a Rolls Royce would today cost $100, get one million miles to the gallon, and explode once a year, killing everyone inside.

Robert X. Cringely

mechanical computers
Mechanical Computers
  • Counting Boards
    • Grooved wooden boards with pebbles
    • Oldest 300BC
  • Abacus
    • Used in ancient Rome and Greece
    • Modern abacus used in Asia after 1200AD
  • Slide Rule
    • John Napier (1600s)
mechanical computers 2
Mechanical Computers (2)
  • Blaise Pascal (1623-1662)
    • French mathematician, physicist and religious philosopher
    • Probability theory, Pascal’s Triangle
    • Pascaline (1642) – he was very young!
      • Adding/subtracting machine with automatic carry
      • failed to be a great commercial success
      • Improved the design, built total of 50 of these
    • Unit of pressure (Pa) named after him and a programming language!!!
    • Animation of the Pascaline:

http://perso.orange.fr/therese.eveilleau/pages/truc_mat/textes/pascaline.htm

mechanical computers 3
Mechanical Computers (3)
  • Joseph-Marie Jacquard (1752-1834)
    • French silk weaver and inventor
    • Jacquard Loom
      • Weaving machine
      • Controlled by recorded patterns

of holes in a string of cards

      • Invention was fiercely opposed

by the silk-weavers

      • Loom was declared public property in 1806
      • He was rewarded with a pension and a royalty on each machine
mechanical computers 4
Mechanical Computers (4)
  • Charles Babbage (1792-1871)
    • English mathematician
    • Sought to eliminate the high error rate in the calculation of mathematical tables (human error)
    • Idea of a programmable computer
    • Difference Engine (1823)
      • Programmable calculator
      • Calculated polynomials
      • Produced table of logarithms 1 -108 000
slide12
Mechanical Computers (5)
  • Analytical Engine
    • With store (modern memory) and mill (modern CPU)
    • Not completed until after his death – lack of funding
    • Could perform any kind of calculation
    • Punch cards similar to Jacquard Loom
  • "The Father of Computing"
mechanical computers 6
Mechanical Computers (6)
  • Augusta Ada King (1815-1852)
    • Ada Lovelace (Countess)
    • Worked with Babbage, wrote notes on how to calculate Bernoulli numbers with the Analytical Engine
    • These notes are recognized as world’s first computer program
    • Controversial: Who wrote these notes – Babbage or Lovelace?
    • Programming language ADA named after her
mechanical computers 7
Mechanical Computers (7)
  • George Boole (1815-1864)
    • English/Irish mathematician
    • Creator of Boolean logic (basis of all modern computer arithmetic)
    • His work was obscure

outside philosophical circles

mechanical computers 8
Mechanical Computers (8)
  • 70 years after his death, an MIT master’s student read about his work
  • He wrote in his thesis about utilizing the properties of electrical switches to do logic
  • Became the basic concept that underlies all modern electronic digital computers
  • Possibly the most important, and also the most famous, Master's thesis of the century
mechanical computers 9
Mechanical Computers (9)
  • Herman Hollerith (1860-1929)
    • American statistician
    • Created the punched cards and associated machinery used for the 1890 US census. (based on Jacquard’s method)
    • Founded Hollerith Tabulating Company which later became IBM
more information
More information
  • Read more here:
    • http://www.computerhistory.org
    • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page
slide18
Quiz
  • What is the first thing you should do before searching for information on the WWW?
quiz 219
Quiz (2)
  • How would you exclude a keyword from a search on the WWW?
quiz 320
Quiz (3)
  • How would you start an efficient search for the fixed expression what a nice day using a search engine?
    • “what” a “nice day”
    • “what a nice day”
    • “a nice day what”
    • what a nice day
quiz 4
Quiz (4)
  • Name 4 people who influenced the mechanical era of computers/computing machines
hist of computing timeline22
Hist. of Computing Timeline
  • Generations
    • Mechanical (Before 1945)
    • Vacuum Tubes (1945 – 1954)
    • Transistors (1954 – 1963)
    • Integrated Circuits (1963 - 1973)
    • Personal Computers (1973 – ???)
    • Parallel Computers, Networking
relays
Relays
  • Relays (electromagnetic switches)
    • Faster than cranking gears
    • Mechanical, could Jam
relays 2
Relays (2)
  • Relays can be combined to create complex logic circuitry (on/off, true/false)
  • Z3 (1941), first relay calculator, built by Konrad Zuse (German engineer)
  • Programmed using punched tape
relays 3
Relays (3)
  • The first computer bug”: moth stuck in a relay
  • Mechanical parts, not very reliable, alternative sought
vacuum tubes
Vacuum Tubes
  • Vacuum Tubes (Valves)
    • Invented 1906
    • Used in audio devices

(to amplify a signal)

    • Expensive, large
    • Used as switches
    • Faster and more reliable than relays
    • Produced heat and wore out
transistors
Transistors
  • Transistors
    • Invented by John Bardeen and Walter Brattain at Bell Labs (1948)
    • Works as a switch
    • Made from silicon (cheap

to produce from sand)

    • Smaller, more reliable
    • More energy efficient
    • Breakthrough: Made computers more affordable!
integrated circuits
Integrated Circuits
  • Integrated Circuits (1958)
    • Jack Kilby at Texas Instruments
    • Simplest calculator requires several thousand transistors
    • Transistors joined on

silicon plates with

metallic connectors

    • modern processor contains

millions of transistors

innovators
Innovators
  • Alan Turing (1912-1954)
    • British mathematician,

cryptographer

    • Theoretical computer (Turing Machine)
    • Tape to store data and instructions
    • WWII Cryptography
innovators 2
Q:Innovators (2)
  • Turing Test for Machine Intelligence

A:

A:

?

innovators 3
Mark I

Mark II

Mark III

Mark IV

Design Begins

Complete

Retired

Data Word

Slow Mem

Fast Mem

Instructions Mem

Basic Add Time

Basic Multiply Time

1939

1944

1958

23 dd+s

72 words

0 words

Paper Tape

300ms

6000ms

1945

1948

1956

10 dd+s+e

96 words

0 words

Paper Tape

200ms

1000ms

1948

1950

1956

16 dd+s

4000 words

360 words

4000 words

4 ms

12 ms

1950

1952

1962

16 dd+s

4000 words

230 words

10 000 words

1.2ms

12ms

Innovators (3)
  • Howard Aiken (1900-1973)
    • Large scale relay calculators (US)
innovators 4
Innovators (4)
  • John von Neumann (1903-1957)
    • ENIAC (1946)
      • 18,000 Vacuum Tubes
      • 30 tons
      • 5000 additionsper sec
    • Von Neumann Architecture

for single processor computers

      • Memory and processing unit are separate
personal computers
Personal Computers
  • Altair 8800 (1975)
    • First PC
    • Kit form
    • Less than $500
    • Sold very well
personal computers 2
Personal Computers (2)
  • No keyboard, monitor, permanent storage provided
  • Programmed by flicking switches on the front, output through lights
personal computers 3
Personal Computers (3)
  • The Apple Computer (1976)
    • Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs
    • Met while working for HP
    • Built and sold Blue Box (which could be used to misuse the telephone system)
    • Were found out
personal computers 4
Personal Computers (4)
  • Built first prototype in Job’s garage
  • Apple II: First pre-assembled PC (1977)
    • Monitor
    • Keyboard
    • Graphics
    • Sound
personal computers 5
Personal Computers (5)
  • IBM PC and Compatibles
    • Special IBM team to create affordable PC (1981)
    • Use parts from Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs)
    • IBM compatible computer
    • IBM expected benefit from royalties and sales of superior product
    • IBM out-competed by cheaper computers built on generic parts
personal computers 6
Personal Computers (6)
  • William H. Gates III and Paul Allen
    • BASIC programming language compiler for Altair
    • MicroSoft (1975)
    • Contracted to writesoftware forIBM PC (1981)
    • MS DOS, Windows
    • Richest in worldby mid 1990s (Gates),

7th richest (Allen)

famous quotes
Famous quotes
  • “I think there is a world market for maybe five computers.”
    • Thomas J. Watson, Chairman IBM, 1943
  • “Where a calculator on the ENIAC is equipped with 18,000 vacuum tubes and weighs 30 tons, computers in the future may have only 1,000 vacuum tubes and weigh only 1½ tons.”
    • Popular Mechanics, 1949
  • “There is no reason anyone would want a computer in their home.”
    • Ken Olson, Chairman DEC, 1977
future
Future?
  • Wireless computers
  • “mobile computing”
  • PDAs and Smart Phones
  • Parallel Processing and Optical Circuitry
  • Quantum Computers
moore s law
Moore’s Law
  • Gordon Moore (1965)
  • Co-founder of Intel
  • At our rate of technological development, the complexity of an integrated circuit, with respect to minimum component cost will double in about 18 months.
  • The law has largely held the test of time to date
moore s law43
Moore’s Law
  • Moore’s Law first published in

"Cramming more components onto integrated circuits", Electronics Magazine 19 April 1965

slide44
X

x

read the study book
Read the study book
  • Please read module 3 of the Study Book
  • For more information,
    • read the corresponding chapter in the text “Foundation Computing” (if you have purchased a copy)
    • Surf the web – Google or Wikipedia are a good start
    • or ask us for help on the Bulletin Board!
  • You should now be ready to attempt the first part of Assignment 3!!!
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