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Chimu Art Distinctive art style art merges Moche and Huari motifs sea motifs prevailed Sicán flourished from 8th to 14th centuries Middle Sican AD 900 - 1100 production of enormous quantities of metal artifacts scale and range unprecedented in Precolumbian America

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chimu art
Chimu Art
  • Distinctive art style
  • art
    • merges Moche and Huari motifs
    • sea motifs prevailed
sic n
Sicán
  • flourished from 8th to 14th centuries
  • Middle Sican
    • AD 900 - 1100
    • production of enormous quantities of metal artifacts
      • scale and range unprecedented in Precolumbian America
      • production of arsenical copper ushered in "Bronze Age”
  • Conqured by Chimú polity ca. 1350
sic n sites
Sicán - Sites
  • Batán Grande
  • Pampa Grande
  • Pacatnamú
sic n looting
Sicán - Looting
  • carried out on an enormous scale
  • began in 1930s and increased through 1940s and 1950s
  • bulldozer used in late 1960s to reveal tomb outlines
  • intense looting continued into 1970s
  • Shimada counted more than 100,000 looters' holes in 1978
  • hundreds of long bulldozer trenches in aerial photos
batan grande
Batan Grande
  • Investigations by Izumi Shimada
  • 17 major adobe constructions
  • large shaft tombs
    • some over 200 objects of silver or gold
  • arsenic bronze production
  • evidence for catastrophic flooding ca. AD 1100
  • city burned and abandoned, like Pampa Grande
pacatnamu
Pacatnamu
  • in the Jequetepeque Valley
  • also has evidence of flooding
sic n huaca loro
Sicán - Huaca Loro
  • adobe platform mound
  • chamber excavated between October 1991 and March 1992
    • located in 3 X 3 m chamber at bottom of 11 meter shaft
  • metal objects account for almost 75% by weight
    • most are of 14-18 karat gold
    • some objects and nearly all scrap are 10-14 karat gold
    • include tumbaga and gold-silver alloys
huaca loro principal burial
Huaca Loro - Principal Burial
  • body seated and inverted
  • central person 40-50 years old
  • accompanied by bodies of two young women
  • head rotated 180 degrees and pointed upward
  • painted with intense red cinnabar
huaca loro burial goods
Huaca Loro - Burial Goods
  • 1.2 tons of grave goods
  • mantle with nearly 2000 gold foil squares
  • three sets of ear ornaments and large gold mask
  • wooden staff with gold and tumbaga ornaments
  • gold shin covers and meter-long tumbaga gloves one glove holding gold cup with silver base
  • silver ceremonial knife
huaca loro gold cache 1
Huaca Loro - Gold Cache 1
  • northwest corner of burial chamber
  • rectangular box lined with woven mats
  • at least 60 major objects, most of gold sheet
  • 12 tumi-shaped head ornaments
  • 6 sets of gold feather head ornaments
  • 14 large disks
huaca loro parabolic headdresses
Huaca Loro - Parabolic Headdresses
  • four sets at bottom of Gold Cache 1
  • 2 m long continuous strip of forged metal
  • even width of 4.5 cm & thickness of 0.15 mm
  • mask (46 X 29 cm)
  • fashioned from a sheet about 0.6 mm thick
  • weight is only 677 g
huaca loro gold cache 1 niches
Huaca Loro - Gold Cache 1 Niches
  • pit in largest niche in east wall had 1500 bundles of naipes
  • each bundle consisted of 12-13 naipes
  • two silver alloy tumi knives
  • thousands of small tumbaga foil squares
  • two dozen tumbaga masks, smaller than the one worn
huaca loro gold cache 2
Huaca Loro - Gold Cache 2
  • more than 50 kg of stone and shell beads
  • carved wooden frame of a litter
  • 3 kg of cinnabar
  • 21 ceramic vessels
huaca loro expertise in goldwork
Huaca Loro - Expertise in Goldwork
  • parabolic head ornaments
  • tumi-shaped headdresses
  • tang narrow, but stout enough to stay erect
  • gold feathers
  • 20-21 cm long
  • tapers in thickness from 0.10 mm at stem to 0.07 mm
huaca loro earspools
Huaca Loro - Earspools
  • show a variety of techniques
  • forged wire
  • true filigree
  • protobrazing
  • method of joining gold an silver alloys that utilizes copper in each heated over charcoal in a reducing atmosphere
huaca loro metal offerings
Huaca Loro - Metal Offerings
  • 500 kg of scrap piled along edges of burial
  • analogous to Huaca Las Ventanas
huaca las ventanas
Huaca las Ventanas
  • tomb about 11 m below the surface
  • measured 15 X 15 m at the mouth
  • 3 X 3 m at the bottom
  • rectangular sheets of set dimensions
  • placed side by side on interior surface and then covered with polychrome cloth
  • total surface area of sheets exceeded 100 m²
huaca loro labor costs
Huaca Loro - Labor Costs
  • enormous investment of manpower
  • many sheets worked with depletion guilding
  • burnished finish
    • polishing in rooms protected from dust and sand
    • would have required special workplaces
  • evidence for master-apprentice arrangement
  • well-done chasing on front but uneven work on back
huaca loro differential access to metal
Huaca Loro - Differential Access to Metal
  • tombs with no metal
  • tombs with only arsenical copper
  • tombs with arsenical copper and tumbaga
    • tumbaga secondary to gold and accessible to more people
  • tombs with gold and other metals
    • gold most precious to Sicán elite
sic n dynasty of naymlap
Sicán - Dynasty of Naymlap
  • 12 named rulers in dynasty
  • ends with Fempellec
    • tempted by sorceress to move Naymlap's idol
    • results in rains and devastating floods
  • Spondylus shell dust associated with royalty
    • Fonga, "Preparer of the Way"
    • shell dust scattered wherever Naymlap walked
chim culture
Chimú Culture
  • based in Lambayeque region
  • probably begins in Sicán phase between AD 700 and 900
    • complex of buildings and platforms 4 km from the sea
  • evidence for catastrophic flooding ca. AD 1100
  • ends with defeat by Inkas between 1462 and 1470
chim culture sites
Chimú Culture - Sites
  • Chan Chan
  • Farfan
  • Pacatnamu
kingdom of chimor
Kingdom of Chimor
  • described in "Anonymous History of Trujillo" written in 1604
    • relates origin myth for the Moche Valley
  • rulers were probably divine or semidivine
  • extends frontiers from Río Santa to the Río Jequetepeque
kingdom of chimor military conquests
Kingdom of Chimor - Military Conquests
  • Jequetepeque supposedly subdued by general from Chimor called Pacatnamu
  • first provincial governor built administrative center now named for him
  • also associated with the site of Farfan
kingdom of chimor26
Kingdom of Chimor
  • first legendary ruler was Tacaynamo
    • dynasty was reportedly descended from him
    • settled in the Moche Valley
    • claimed to have come from afar to govern
  • son was Nancenpinco
    • consolidates upstream portion of valley
    • carries out first stage of external expansion
  • followed by 5 to 8 unnamed rulers
  • some accounts give a total of ten
chimor minchancamon
Chimor - Minchancamon
  • last of rulers of Chimor was Minchancamon
  • conquers coast from Río Chillon to Río Tumbes
  • defeated by Inka and taken to Cuzco
  • puppet heir installed until Colonial era
  • conflict with Inkas sometime between 1462 and 1470
    • defeated and lands fell under Inka control
chim religion
Chimú - Religion
  • rulers responsible for agriculture and well-being of people
  • principal deity was moon goddess Si
  • sea was thought of as a deity called Ni
chan chan
Chan Chan
  • Chimú capital in the Moche Valley
  • covered about 6 sq km
chan chan chronology
Chan Chan - Chronology
  • based on shapes of mud bricks
  • earliest based on Moche V structures at Galindo
  • early bricks were flat, middle were square-ended, later were tall
  • last built at Chiquitoy Viejo under Inca aegis
    • controlled main road to former capital in Chicama Valley
chan chan ciudadelas
Chan Chan - Ciudadelas
  • northern entry sector, central sector, rear sector
  • Uhle, Chayhuac, Tello, and Squier
  • ciudadelas have three major internal divisions
    • north sector, central sector, canchón, or wing
  • north-south orientation
  • average area is about 140,000 sq m
    • largest (Gran Chimu) contained 221,000 sq m of floor space
    • smallest (Rivero) is about 87,900 sq m
chan chan ciudadela architecture
Chan Chan - Ciudadela Architecture
  • surrounded by battered adobe walls up to 9 m high
  • base is 1.5-2 m thick
    • built on layer of partially-submerged boulders
  • adobes laid in block-like sections with vertical joints
  • one of the enclosure walls was 650 m long
  • suggest overwhelming concern with security and control
chan chan north sectors
Chan Chan - North Sectors
  • entered via single door in high north wall
  • courts contain benches and ramps
  • virtually all ramps contained burials and have been looted
  • U-shaped audiencias
  • slightly rectangular in plan with floor areas of 5-6 m²
  • most were burned or looted when the site was abandoned
  • excavated examples in Rivero were probably systematically emptied
    • nothing found within
chan chan central sectors
Chan Chan - Central Sectors
  • same general layout as north sectors
  • more isolated and difficult to enter than north sectors
  • burial platforms
  • form of a truncated pyramid
  • usually last structure to be completed within the compound
chan chan sequential construction
Chan Chan - Sequential Construction
  • evidence for sequential construction
  • Uhle has flat adobes
  • Grand Chimu has square-ended bricks
  • Bandelier, Laberinto, Velarde, and Squier have tall adobes
chan chan burial structures
Chan Chan - Burial Structures
  • principal structure and secondary cells
  • number ranged from 15 in Squier to over 100 in Gran Chimu
  • principal cells were T-shaped
  • only three survive (Bandelier, Tschudi, and Laberinto)
  • secondary cells found in noncentral part of the platform shaft and boot-shaped forms
chan chan human remains
Chan Chan - Human Remains
  • burial structures contain large amounts of human bone
  • remains of 93 individuals recovered from Laberinto
  • no more than 25% of total fill was removed
  • only smallest cell was completely excavated
  • contained 13 skeletons, stacked like cordwood
  • 11 more bodies were evident from remains
  • estimate of 200-300 burials in the platform
  • in every case where it could be determined, the bones were those of adolescent and young adult females
prestige items
Prestige Items
  • pottery
  • textiles
  • carved wood
  • weaving equipment
  • metal objects
  • both whole and powdered Spondylus shell
chan chan burial rituals
Chan Chan - Burial Rituals
  • death of principal person served as trigger for complex rituals extending over a period of time
  • individual was placed in main chamber and offertory goods were placed with him and in other cells
  • sacrifice of women to accompany him
  • large numbers were killed as further sacrifices and buried near the platforms
  • original platform added to over time and other burials added
chan chan split inheritance
Chan Chan - Split Inheritance
  • model suggested by Geoffrey Conrad
  • king inherits political power but not property
  • must create own center of authority and production by organizing labor
  • extended family of dead king inherits that king’s compound
chan chan other forms of architecture
Chan Chan - Other Forms of Architecture
  • elite compounds
    • annexes to north ends of ciudadelas
  • about 30 small compounds housing middle-level elites
chan chan residential units
Chan Chan - Residential Units
  • small irregularly agglutinated rooms (SIAR)
  • located around the outsides of large enclosures
  • housed "urban proletariat”
chan chan craft workshops
Chan Chan -Craft Workshops
  • estimated that 26,000 craftspeoplelived in the city
  • cottage industry to support high-ranking personages
chan chan metalworking
Chan Chan - Metalworking
  • copper smelting was not evident despite occasional blowpipes, ingots, and slag
  • copper may have been imported in already smelted form
  • many artifacts diagnostic of copper working
    • stone anvils and hammers
    • quartz gravers, awls, and chisels
chan chan textile production
Chan Chan -Textile Production
  • in the form of spinning and weaving spindles, combs, heddles, stakes, and needles of wood and copper
  • surprising quantity of textiles and textile fragments
chan chan woodworking
Chan Chan -Woodworking
  • evidence in the form of cut blocks of wood
  • planed smooth on one or more surfaces
  • manufacture of wooden eartubes
  • may represent different status from earspools
chan chan food remains
Chan Chan - Food Remains
  • most of meat provided by herds of llamas
  • dog and guinea pig also present
  • small amounts of sea lion bone
  • cotton and gourds
  • maize, common beans, squash, peanuts, and chili pepper
  • avocado and guanabana
chan chan huacas
Chan Chan - Huacas
  • four located on the outskirts of Chan Chan
    • Obispo, Toledo, Las Conchas, and El Higo
  • Obispo was 100 m square at its base and 20 m high
chan chan sunken gardens
Chan Chan - Sunken Gardens
  • sunken gardens and cemetery
      • used today for growing crops
chan chan irrigation systems
Chan Chan -Irrigation Systems
  • built during middle phase
  • now runs uphill due to fault
  • elevational increase (No. 1)
    • new canal with low gradients built farther upstream
  • extension
    • new channel can be cut at the end of an extant canal
    • may have same gradient (No. 3)
    • may have different gradient (No. 4)
chan chan water control
Chan Chan - Water Control
  • in a small valley (Viru), water is limited
    • single large canal or set of canals can monopolize water
    • this would lead to single polity in the valley
    • exception is that subsurface water can be tapped
    • groundwater areas allow for different polities
  • in a large valley (Chicama), water is not a limiting factor
    • each network is potentially a different polity
  • in between is the Moche Valley
    • groundwater seeps are rare
chim decline
Chimú - Decline
  • conquered by Inca between 1462 and 1470