Arab-Israeli Conflict. Early beginnings : 19 th century to 1947. The pogrom. This is the name given to a racist attack, particularly on a Jewish community. ‘Pogroms’, as a term, came from Russia in the 19 th century. It means ‘to destroy’.
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Early beginnings : 19th century to 1947
German people are brought, by the Americans, to see the horror of Nazi brutality against the Jews in a concentration camp.
Zionists are a political group of Jewish people.
They argued for a homeland for all Jewish people, a place where Jews would not fear pogroms, and where they could live safely. ’Zion’ is a Biblical name for Israel.
They received a huge amount of support towards the end of the 19th century when many Jews were being displaced from around the world.
Zionists looked particularly at the land of their Jewish ancestors in Palestine, the land that had been called Judea and had given its name to ‘Jew’.Capital city Jerusalem.
This land was already occupied, however, by Arabic peoples called ‘Palestinians’.
Many Jewish people were anti-Zionist however despite the pogroms. They felt that a small country would make them easy targets and in any event their ‘Jewishness’ did not make them any less Russian, or German or American. Judaism, they argued, was a religion.
that Jewish immigration to Palestine was temporarily stopped (turning the Zionists against the British),and
the Jews themselves realised that they had to defend themselves if they were to survive.
The area labelled ‘Palestine’ by 1936 had become a war zone with regular clashes between Arab and Jewish settlers.
By 1939 however the Arabs were completely repressed by the harsh British military presence.
A Jewish military was being encouraged, and the partition of Palestine would seem to be an acceptable solution along the line shown on this map.
The British Empire was severely shocked by the war and needed men fast.
It was proposed that Palestine could be a recruiting base for Jewish soldiers.
The government agreed and a Jewish Brigade was established. It was even allowed the Zionist emblem as its flag.
By the end of the war the British sought to break up the Brigade. They confiscated equipment- but military knowledge they couldn’t erase.
Yellow marks Arab Palestinian land.
This huge imbalance between the Jewish settlers in 1947 and their Arab adversaries has changed little.
Meanwhile Jewish refugees continued to arrive from war-torn Europe.
Many arrived with, or without, British permission to land.
This was like adding petrol (gas) to a smouldering fire. It would make it burst into flame.