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Humanity Towards Others PowerPoint Presentation
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Humanity Towards Others

Humanity Towards Others

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Humanity Towards Others

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  1. Humanity Towards Others Hamidreza Talebi- http://www.vdsoft.ir

  2. History • Ubuntu is based on the Debian • Under the leadership of Mark Shuttleworth, Canonical Ltd. (www.canonical.com) • the sponsor of Ubuntu Linux, supports many, similar Linux distributions: • Ubuntu runs the GNOME desktop manager • Kubunturuns the KDE desktop manager • Edubuntuincludes many school-related applications • Xubuntulightweight Xfce desktop, for older, slower machines • Ubuntu Linux is based on Debian Linux • Ubuntu system uses the GNOME desktop manager Hamidreza Talebi- http://www.vdsoft.ir

  3. UBUNTU Releases • The number comprises the last one or two digits of the year and the two digits of the month of the release. • For Example, the 9.10 release was released in October 2009. In sequence, recent releases are 7.10 (Gutsy Gibbon), 8.04 (Hardy Heron), 8.10 (Intrepid Ibex), 9.04 (Jaunty Jackalope), 9.10 (Karmic Koala), and 10.04 (Lucid Lynx). Hamidreza Talebi- http://www.vdsoft.ir

  4. Hamidreza Talebi- http://www.vdsoft.ir

  5. Partitioning • you can divide an IDE/ATA/SATA disk into a maximum of 63 partitions and a SCSI disk into a maximum of 15 partitions. Hamidreza Talebi- http://www.vdsoft.ir

  6. Partitioning Hamidreza Talebi- http://www.vdsoft.ir

  7. RAID • RAID (Redundant Array of Inexpensive/Independent Disks) • employs two or more hard disk drives or partitions in combination to improve fault tolerance and/or performance. • Applications and utilities see these multiple drives/partitions as a single logical device. • RAID, which can be implemented in hardware or software (Ubuntu gives you this option), spreads data across multiple disks. Depending on which level you choose, RAID can provide data redundancy to protect data in the case of hardware failure. • The purposes of RAID are to improve performance and/or to minimize downtime in the case of a disk failure. RAID does not replace backups Hamidreza Talebi- http://www.vdsoft.ir

  8. RAID RAID level 0 (striping)—Improves performance but offers no redundancy. The storage capacity of the RAID device is equal to that of the member partitions or disks. RAID level 1 (mirroring)—Provides simple redundancy, improving data reliability, and can improve the performance of read-intensive applications. The storage capacity of the RAID device is equal to one of the mem-ber partitions or disks. RAID level 5 (disk striping with parity)—Provides redundancy and improves performance (most notably, read performance). The storage capacity of the RAID device is equal to that of the member partitions or disks, minus one of the partitions or disks (assuming they are all the same size). • RAID level 6 (disk striping with double parity)—Improves upon level 5 RAID by protecting data when two disks fail at once. Level 6 RAID is inefficient with a small number of drives. • RAID level 10 (mirroring and striping)—A combination of RAID 1 and RAID 0 (also called RAID 1+0), RAID 10 uses mirroring to improve fault tolerance and striping to improve performance. Multiple RAID 1 arrays (mirroring) are overlaid with a RAID 0 array (striping). The storage capacity of the RAID device is equal to one-half that of the member partitions or disks. You must use at least four partitions or disks. Hamidreza Talebi- http://www.vdsoft.ir

  9. File System • The ext3 and ext4filesystems are the only type of filesystems officially supported by Ubuntu Hamidreza Talebi- http://www.vdsoft.ir

  10. Partitioning Hamidreza Talebi- http://www.vdsoft.ir

  11. Partitioning Hamidreza Talebi- http://www.vdsoft.ir

  12. Partitioning Hamidreza Talebi- http://www.vdsoft.ir

  13. Partitioning Hamidreza Talebi- http://www.vdsoft.ir

  14. Partitioning Hamidreza Talebi- http://www.vdsoft.ir

  15. Partitioning Hamidreza Talebi- http://www.vdsoft.ir

  16. Root Privileges /sudo • A person working with root privileges is sometimes referred to as Superuser or administrator. • The first user you set up when you install Ubuntu can administer the system: This user can use sudo to execute any command Hamidreza Talebi- http://www.vdsoft.ir

  17. Introduction Hamidreza Talebi- http://www.vdsoft.ir

  18. Introduction • Application • Places • Systems Hamidreza Talebi- http://www.vdsoft.ir

  19. Application • Open Office Database : like access • Application> office> open office database • Open Office Draw: for website and pdf • Application>graphic>open office draw • Open Office Presentation: like powerpoint • Application>office>open office presentation • Open Office Spreadsheet: like excel • Application>office>open office spreadsheet Hamidreza Talebi- http://www.vdsoft.ir

  20. Graphic Application • Gimp: Image Editor • Application> Graphic> Gimp Image Editor • gThumb: Image Editor • Application>graphic>gThumb • Take ScreenPicture: • Application>Accessories>Take Screenshot Hamidreza Talebi- http://www.vdsoft.ir

  21. Write CD/DVD • Places>CD/DVD Creator Hamidreza Talebi- http://www.vdsoft.ir

  22. Install Persian • First Add Keyboard to Panel • Right Click on Bar> Add Panel>application Launcher> Preferences>Keyboard • Second, Add Second Language to keyboard • Layout >add • Layout Option>Group shift/lock behavoir>Alt+ shift Hamidreza Talebi- http://www.vdsoft.ir

  23. Add / Remove Software • Application> Add/remove Software Hamidreza Talebi- http://www.vdsoft.ir

  24. Introduction • Theme • Main Configuration • Panel • Screen Saver • Changing Appearance : System>Preferences> Appearance or by right-clicking the root window • SessionManagement:System>Preferences>Startup Applications • Opening Files • Changepassword: System>Preferences>About Me (Thepwgen utility (install the pwgen package) generates a list of almost random passwords. Witha little imagination, you can pronounce, and therefore remember, some of these passwords.) Hamidreza Talebi- http://www.vdsoft.ir

  25. Introduction • The Update Manager : System>Administration>Update Manager • Terminal>man man or man passwd • Man –t > print • Man –h >help • !! -> repeat previous command • Sudo -> system administrator Hamidreza Talebi- http://www.vdsoft.ir

  26. Basic Utilities Hamidreza Talebi- http://www.vdsoft.ir

  27. Basic Utilities • The following sections discuss some of the most basic and important utilities; these utilities are available from a CLI. Some of the more important utilities are also available from a GUI • Using Terminals Hamidreza Talebi- http://www.vdsoft.ir

  28. Terminal Commands • Ls: Lists the Names of Files • Ls –l (shows the information of file) • cat: Displays a Text File • The name of the command is derived from catenate, which means to join together, one after the other. • rm: Deletes a File • The rm (remove) utility deletes a file • (Optional)$ rm –itoollist : confirm to delete this file? Y • Less or more: When you want to view a file that is longer than one screen, you can use either the less utility or the more utility • Q -> exit from less and more Hamidreza Talebi- http://www.vdsoft.ir

  29. Example Hamidreza Talebi- http://www.vdsoft.ir

  30. Commands • hostname: The hostname utility displays the host name • cp (copy): cp source-filedestination-file • Example : cp practice practice.0120 • Cp –i practice practice.2 cp: overwrite ‘practice.2’ ? Y • mv (move): mv existing-filename new-filename • lpr(Prints a File): lpr report • lpq (jobs are in the print queue) • lpr - • p (display list of available printers) • lpr -P laser1 05.txt 108.txt 12.txt (print 3 files with printer name) Hamidreza Talebi- http://www.vdsoft.ir

  31. Commands • grep: Searches for a String • grep 'credit' practice (search credit in practice file) • head: Displays the Beginning of a File • head utility displays the first ten lines of a file • Example: head -1 practice • Example: head -5 practice • tail: Displays the End of a File • sort: Displays a File in Order • The –u option generates a sorted list in which each line is unique • The –n option puts a list of numbers in numerical order • uniq: Removes Duplicate Lines from a File • Example: Uniq practice • diff: Compares Two Files • Example: Diff –u colors.1 colors.2 Hamidreza Talebi- http://www.vdsoft.ir

  32. Commands • file: Identifies the Contents of a File • e.g: file letter_e.bz2 • letter_e.bz2: bzip2 compressed data, block size = 900k • head: Displays the Beginning of a File • head utility displays the first ten lines of a file • Example: head -1 practice • Example: head -5 practice Hamidreza Talebi- http://www.vdsoft.ir

  33. Commands • | (Pipe): Communicates Between Processes • A pipe (written as a vertical bar, |, on the command line and appearing as a solid or broken vertical line on a keyboard) provides the simplest form of this kind of communication. • e.g: sort months | head -4 • e.g: ls | wc –w (wc=word count) • echo: Displays Tex $ echo 'My new file.' > myfile $ cat myfile My new file. The greater than (>) sign tells the shell to send the output of echo to the file named myfile instead of to the screen Hamidreza Talebi- http://www.vdsoft.ir

  34. Commands • date: Displays the Time and Date $ date Thu Jan 21 10:24:00 PST 2010 $ date +"%A %B %d" Thursday January 21 • script: Records a Shell Session • The script utility records all or part of a login session, including your input and the system’s responses. $ whoami sam $ exit exit Hamidreza Talebi- http://www.vdsoft.ir

  35. Commands • todos: Converts Linux and Macintosh Files to Windows Format If you want to share a text file you created on a Linux system with someone on a Windows or Macintosh system, you need to convert the file before the person on the other system can read it easily. $ todos memo.txt $ fromdos memo.txt (ready for Linux) • bzip2: Compresses a File • The –v (verbose) option causes bzip2 to report how much it was able to reduce the size of the file. $ bzip2 -v letter_e letter_e: 11680.00:1, 0.001 bits/byte, 99.99% saved, 584000 in, 50 out. $ ls -l -rw-rw-r-- 1 samsam 50 2010-03-01 22:31 letter_e.bz2 Hamidreza Talebi- http://www.vdsoft.ir

  36. Commands • bunzip2 and bzcat: Decompress a File $ bunzip2 letter_e.bz2 $ ls -l -rw-rw-r-- 1 samsam 584000 2010-03-01 22:31 letter_e $ bunzip2 zach.jpg.bz2 $ ls -l -rw-r--r-- 1 samsam 33287 2010-03-01 22:40 zach.jpg bzcat: Decompress a File • displays a file that has been compressed with bzip2 • $ bzcat letter_e.bz2 | head -2 eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Hamidreza Talebi- http://www.vdsoft.ir

  37. Commands • gzip: Compresses a File • The gzip (GNU zip) utility is older and less efficient than bzip2. • Don’t confuse the gzip with zip • tar: Packs and Unpacks Archives • Its name is short for tape archive • $ bzcat letter_e.bz2 | head -2 eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Hamidreza Talebi- http://www.vdsoft.ir

  38. Commands • which : Locate a Utility searches a list of directories for a program with that name and runs the first one it finds. • $ which tar /bin/tar • Where: Locate a Utility • $ whereis tar tar: /bin/tar /usr/include/tar.h /usr/share/man/man1/tar.1.gz ... Hamidreza Talebi- http://www.vdsoft.ir

  39. Commands • mlocate: Searches for a File searches a list of directories for a program with that name and runs the first one it finds. • $ mlocate upstart • /etc/init/upstart-udev-bridge.conf • /etc/network/if-down.d/upstart • /etc/network/if-up.d/upstart • /lib/init/upstart-job • /sbin/upstart-udev-bridge • ... • who: Lists Users on the System • $ who • sam tty4 2010-07-25 17:18 • max tty2 2010-07-25 16:42 • zach tty1 2010-07-25 16:39 • max pts/4 2010-07-25 17:27 (coffee)... • $ who am I • Display which terminal you are in Hamidreza Talebi- http://www.vdsoft.ir

  40. Commands • finger: Lists Users on the System You can use finger to display a list of users who are logged in on the local system. In addition to usernames, finger supplies each user’s full name along with infor- mation about which device the user’s terminal is connected to • * means remote user • w: Lists Users on the System $ w • sam tty4 2010-07-25 17:18 • max tty2 2010-07-25 16:42 • zach tty1 2010-07-25 16:39 • max pts/4 2010-07-25 17:27 (coffee)... Hamidreza Talebi- http://www.vdsoft.ir

  41. Commands Hamidreza Talebi- http://www.vdsoft.ir

  42. Commands • write: Sends a Message • write username[terminal] $ write max Hi Max, are you there? o • w: Lists Users on the System $ w • sam tty4 2010-07-25 17:18 • max tty2 2010-07-25 16:42 • zach tty1 2010-07-25 16:39 • max pts/4 2010-07-25 17:27 (coffee)... Hamidreza Talebi- http://www.vdsoft.ir

  43. Hamidreza Talebi- http://www.vdsoft.ir

  44. The Linux File system Hamidreza Talebi- http://www.vdsoft.ir

  45. Hamidreza Talebi- http://www.vdsoft.ir

  46. Linux File System • The maximum length of a filename varies with the type of file system • Although most of today’s filesystems allow files with names up to 255 characters long • Linux is case sensitive, so files named JANUARY, January, and january represent three distinct files Hamidreza Talebi- http://www.vdsoft.ir

  47. Filename Extensions Hamidreza Talebi- http://www.vdsoft.ir

  48. Absolute Path Name Hamidreza Talebi- http://www.vdsoft.ir

  49. ~ (Tilde) in Pathnames • In another form of absolute pathname, the shell expands the characters ~/ (a tilde followed by a slash) • Ls ~hrt/ equal to ls • Ls ~/ equal to ls (means root) • Ls ~/Documents/ Hamidreza Talebi- http://www.vdsoft.ir

  50. mkdir: Creates a Directory • $ mkdir literature • $ mkdir literature/promo • Use the –p (parents) option to mkdir to create both the literature and promo : $ mkdir -p literature/promo Hamidreza Talebi- http://www.vdsoft.ir