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Social Entrepreneurship: International Perspectives. Steven Lux Maxwell School of Syracuse University. Learning Objectives. Review key Concepts in this course Broaden your perspectives on how Social Entrepreneurship (SE) concepts are applied in the international domain

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social entrepreneurship international perspectives

Social Entrepreneurship: International Perspectives

Steven Lux Maxwell School of Syracuse University

learning objectives
Learning Objectives
  • Review key Concepts in this course
  • Broaden your perspectives on how Social Entrepreneurship (SE) concepts are applied in the international domain
  • Analyze constraints and opportunities for SE in the international frame
my perspectives on this
My perspectives on this
  • Regional Director of an Asian NGO
  • Teaching – (http://faculty.maxwell.syr.edu/sjlux/)
    • NGO Management in Developing Countries
    • Governance and Global Civil Society
  • Research
    • Transnational NGO Study
case studies data experiences
Case Studies, Data, Experiences
  • Unfortunately, not a whole lot of data or literature to say that SE is the right thing for international development
  • Plenty of Case Studies to share that suggest it works, perhaps as many that worry about SE ineffectiveness
  • Will provide personal war stories that provide insights to the points I want to make
se definition for the international
SE definition for the International

If you believe . . .

“Process of creating value by bringing together a unique package of resources to exploit an opportunity” (Morris, M.)

What is different about the international dimension?

- nothing in terms of process

- everything in terms of actors and context

entrepreneurship as a process morris m

Identifying an Opportunity

Develop the Concept

Determine Required Resources

Acquire Necessary Resources

Implement and Manage

Harvest the Venture

Entrepreneurship as a Process (Morris, M.)
international social entrepreneur
International Social Entrepreneur
  • So what is so different . . .
    • Beyond one’s national borders
    • Imbedded in other cultures, languages, etc.
    • Social, political, economic environment different than one’s own
elements required for entrepreneurship morris m
Elements Required for Entrepreneurship (Morris, M.)

The environment

1

The entrepreneurial process

The

entrepreneur

The organizational context

The resources

The concept

examples
Examples
  • CARE Packages
do you remember who wrote this famous phrase
Do you remember who wrote this famous phrase?

“ . . . pessimism of the intellect, optimism of the will“

A. Antonio Gramsci

a few common issues
A Few Common Issues
  • Overcoming Guilt
  • Understanding Problems and Needs
  • The Nature of Politics
  • Economic Influences
1 getting beyond guilt
1. Getting beyond Guilt
  • Lazarus and the Rich Man – what does this mean in terms of actions
    • Don’t neglect the Poor, but . . .
      • Handouts are not necessarily empowering, they can create dependency
      • Cutting off our own consumption may not help the poor, they may rely on exports
    • “The poor cannot eat our guilt. We screwed them with colonialism and our guilt will not solve that history.” (senior VP, PATH)
2 problems and needs
2. Problems and Needs
  • Who determines what they are?
  • How do we set priorities?
  • Where do we find mismatches between the SE and the target groups?
maslow s hierarchy review

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Maslow's Hierarchy (Review)

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Maslow’s Hierarchy

Example enterprises

needs se vs target group
Needs - SE vs Target Group

Self-transformation

Self-transformation

Self-actualization

Self-actualization

Aesthetic

Aesthetic

Social Entrepreneurs

Target Group

3 political realities
3. Political Realities
  • Does government accept your presence?
  • Who is on your side, who is against?
  • Do we understand the state of development and rules of engagement be it related to civil society, NGOs, Gov
the bullshit project
The Bullshit Project
  • Phu Xieng Thong National Bio-diversity Conservation Area Project
    • Objective – reduce forest use through alternative livelihood development
    • Major Activities – higher yield rice production, animal husbandry, improved health, birth spacing, and education

Real need: cheap, natural fertilizer

Most difficult barrier: local government

who profits and who loses
Who Profits and Who Loses

“And it ought to be remembered that there is nothing more difficult to take in hand, more perilous to conduct, or more uncertain in its success, than to take the lead in the introduction of a new order of things. Because the innovator has for enemies all those who have done well under the old conditions, and lukewarm defenders in those who may do well under the new.”

The Prince, Chapter 6,Nicolo Machiavelli

role as source of tension
Role as Source of Tension

THEN NOW

Religious based Work

Social Work & Charity

Develop-

ment

Advocacy and Rights Focus.

4 economic realities
4. Economic Realities
  • Is the SE working with or against the predominant economic system?
  • What forces might undermine the solution proposed?
for example
For example . . .
  • In the 1980s

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/music/3543059.stm

Vs.

Poverty and Famines, Amartya Sen

exercise
Exercise
  • What types of work represent the greatest challenge for International SEs?
my hope for you
My hope for you . . .
  • Everyone of you will become a “smart” international SE
    • Starting orgs
    • Supporting orgs
    • Volunteering oversees
  • Take calculated risk, learn, and be willing to make mistakes
    • The hope for SE is that we might get out of the traditional aid trap that does not recognize or value failures
hopeful critical effective
Hopeful, Critical, Effective
  • Social Entrepreneurs provide great hope for international development dilemmas
  • BUT face a variety of critical questions about their effectiveness:
    • Empirical evidence, can you prove its worth?
    • Are market forces, migration, urbanization, demographics more important?
hopeful critical effective1
Hopeful, Critical, Effective

Let’s make our International SE’s smarter, more in tune with then needs and risks of the work they propose. Critical thinking and analysis will transform hope into effectiveness.

what must international se s learn
What must International SE’s learn?
  • Understanding the needs
  • Understanding the risks
  • Understanding transformation, which means . . . .

Your analysis determines your action!

organizations that have done that well or are trying to do so
Organizations that have done that well or are trying to do so!
  • PDA - Cabbages and Condoms Campaign
  • PATH Idea Factory
  • Ashoka Foundation
path idea factory
PATH Idea Factory
  • http://www.path.org/about.php
  • http://www.path.org/awards.php
  • http://www.path.org/media/product-development-tour.php