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Sustainably managing a renewable resource in human dominated landscapes. Forests, Forest Management and Conservation. Learning Objectives. Forests are a renewable resource that provide a number of benefits

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Forests, Forest Management and Conservation


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    1. Sustainably managing a renewable resource in human dominated landscapes Forests, Forest Management and Conservation

    2. Learning Objectives • Forests are a renewable resource that provide a number of benefits • Sustainable forest management can provide products for consumption while providing environmental services • Sustainable forest management provides opportunities for rural development

    3. Recent news • Conference of the Parties to the Convention of Biological Diversity – Oct. 18-29, 2010 • New 10-year Strategic Plan • Resource mobilization strategy ($) • Intn’l protocol on access to and sharing benefits of genetic resources (2012) • Deforestation dropped from 16 million ha/yr in the 90’s to 13 million/yr in the past decade. • Integration of Biodiversity with Climate Change and Land Degradation issues

    4. Forest Characteristics - 2005

    5. Forest area changes 1990-2000 in tropical and non-tropical areas (million hectares per year) Source: FAO Forest Resource Assessment 2000

    6. Net change in Forest Area 2000 - 2005 Source: FAO Forest Resource Assessment - 2005

    7. What is deforestation? • Deforestation is defined as a removal of tree-canopy cover to below 10% (FAO) • Refers to land-cover & land-use changes • Mostly investments in alternative uses • Different from forest degradation (product over-harvesting, fire, etc.)

    8. Greenhouse gas emissions • LULUCF 10-25% of global human-induced emissions in the 1990s (IPCC) • Amazon development: large emission differences (deforestation, logging, fires) • Currently no incentives for developing countries to reduce deforestation => deforestation “nullifies” a large share of the Kyoto gains

    9. Deforestation 1990-2005 Note: Roughly size of California Source: FAO - Global Forest Resources Assessment Report 2005, and http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Library/Deforestation/deforestation_update3.html

    10. Difficult to determine the net rate of change in forest resources Fire-related deforestation The logging – roads – agriculture connection Deforestation is a continuing issue (Tropical rain forest Brazilian Amazon)

    11. Amazon Deforestation Remains Highbut has declined recently 2004 – 2005 • 7,255 mile2 2005 – 2006 • 6,450 mile2 2006 – 2007 • 3,707 mile2 Aug. 2004-July 2005 3,515 square miles http://news.mongabay.com/2007/0813-amazon.html

    12. Soybeans - Amazon

    13. Causes of Deforestation • Use timber for lumber and paper products • Clearing of forestland for agriculture (Nepal and Brazil) • Energy source (firewood; 1/4 developing countries; 1/2 in Africa) • Indirect deforestation (the death of trees from pollution; acid rain; global warming-reduction in growth) • Demand for land dominant cause (CIFOR,2006)

    14. Problems of Deforestation • Global warming • Loss of biodiversity • Reductions in productivity • Soil erosion - Erosion from deforestation has caused the loss of 580 million hectares of soil • Increased runoff, flooding, landslides • Loss of traditional cultures • Less than 0.1% of tropical forests are managed sustainably

    15. What are the goods and services a forest provides ? Forest Resources

    16. Goods and services provided by forests • Environmental services • Recreation, aesthetics • Conservation and protection • Generates income and employment • Source of energy • Habitat for flora y fauna • Restoration and improvement • Water management

    17. Management objectives

    18. Sustainability: Goal of Forestry • The key to forest management is sustainability • Sustainable timber harvest is the amount of timber that can be removed periodically from a forest without decreasing the capacity of the forest ecosystem to sustain that level of harvest in the future • Sustainable forest ecosystemis one in whichall the ecosystem properties of the forest are maintained

    19. Forest management • Combination of biologic and economic aspects -> efficient production • Includes a variety of different uses • Successive harvests over time • Public and private management • May require management for several outputs to justify forest maintenance

    20. Special aspects of Forest Management • Relatively slow growth • Management for multiple uses • Product and capital at the same time • Externalities (generally positive)

    21. Management options • Natural forest management • Selective harvest • Multiple harvests by species groups • Extraction of fallen timber (Costa Rica) • Strip harvesting (Peru) • Even aged management • Agroforestry systems

    22. Innovations in Tropical Forestry • Harvest planning • Directional felling • Certification • Community forestry • Tenure issues

    23. Non-Timber forest products • Non-timber forest products/Non-wood forest products (FAO) • Do we have them in Minnesota/USA • 150 products in Intn’l trade with average annual trade value between US$ 5 and 10 billion • India: 50% of forest revenue and 70% of income through export • WHO estimates that 80% of developing world use NWFP for health and nutrition needs • Very diverse group of products

    24. Why the interest ? • Adding value to the forest to promote conservation through production • Income and employment generation for rural and urban communities • Complement to other forest values

    25. Dynamics of NTFP • Characterized by: • Limited quantities • Seasonal availability • Quality control problems • Inelastic supply • When demand develops – outcome #1 • Exploitation increases • Leading to raw material shortages and unsustainable harvests

    26. Dynamics of NTFP (cont.) • When demand develops – outcome #2 • Domestication of product - production outside of the forest • Replacement by synthetic products • In some cases, the interest in natural substitutes for synthetic products has generated renewed demand for NTFP • Generally produced and used by rural poor and small scale rural industries

    27. Park and Reserve Management - Goals • Preservation of nature without human interference • Wildlife conservation, including conservation of the required habitat and ecosystem of the wildlife • Maintenance for outdoor recreation (hiking, rock climbing, camping, bus tours) and for scientific research • How much land should be in parks?

    28. Park and Reserve Management – Issues in Developing Countries • Protection with inadequate resources • Risk of: • Fires • Invasions • Illegal logging • Working with local populations often displaced by parks and reserves

    29. Summary • Management of forests must take into account ecosystem effects. • Forests can be managed simultaneously for productive benefits and the provision of environmental services • Forests can provide capital for development • The roles of parks, protected and productive forests, in the conservation of natural areas • Policy issues are important if sustainable approaches are to be adopted. • e.g. subsidies, incentives, etc.

    30. Questions?