Lecture 3 Noun and Noun Phrase. Objectives: 1. Classification of nouns. 2. Number forms of nouns 3. Plural forms of the compound nouns 4. Number forms of the material nouns 5. Number forms of the abstract nouns. Lecture 3 Noun and Noun Phrase. 1. Classification of nouns.
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1. Classification of nouns.
Nouns can be classified according to word formation, lexical meaning and grammatical form.
1) Simple, compound and derivative nouns
2) Proper and common nouns
3) Countable and uncountable nouns
A simple noun is a noun that contains only one free morpheme (eg; chair, land, faith).
A compound noun is a noun that is composed of two or more morphemes (eg: armchair, farmland).
A derivative noun is a noun that comes from a verb, an adjective or a simple noun with affix (eg: arrangement, greatness, patriotism).
A proper noun is a name used for a particular person, place or thing, and spelt with a capital initial letter (eg: Anderson, Britain).
A common noun is a name common to a class of people, things or abstract ideas. Common nouns can be further classified into individual, collective, material, and abstract nouns ( eg: a boy, air, glory).
A countable noun is a noun that has a plural form and which can collocate with numbers and with such determiners as a (an), many, few, these, those, several, etc
An uncountable noun is a noun that cannot go with the above-mentioned words
Number is a grammatical distinction which determines whether a noun or determiner is singular or plural.
1) Regular and irregular plural
Individual nouns are all countable and therefore have singular and plural forms. The singular form of an individual noun, which shares the same form as the base of the word, can take such determiners as a(an) and one( eg: a / one desk).
The plural form of an individual noun can be regular or irregular.
The regular plural is formed by adding –s or –es to the base
eg: days, churches, countries, loaves, wives, etc
a. The irregular plural form is formed by other means such as by changing the internal vowel or by changing the ending of the noun.
eg: tooth-teeth, foot-feet，
goose- geese， man-men ，
All his _____ are swans.
A) geese B) goose C) gooses D) geeses
b. Irregular plurals also include some words of foreign origin, borrowed from Greek, Latin or Foreign plurals, their formation are different
analysis（分析）---- analyses [ə'næləsi:z]
thesis（论文）--- theses ['θi:si:z]
stratum['streitəm] （阶层）--- strata ['streitə]
radius（半径）-- radii ['reidiai]
-is— -es -um-- -a -on--- -a -us—ae -a--- -ae
This natural phenomena which we just
discovered is most interesting.
a. one kind is formed in singular ending
aircraft（飞机）， horsepower（马力）， hovercraft（气垫船），Japanese，
Chinese， Swiss ，
yuan（元）， jin（斤） etc.
species（种） means（方法） series（系列）headquarters （司令部） works（工厂） crossroads（十字路口） barracks（兵营）
When they are used as subject, the verb form should match its subject in number. eg :
--The TV series was proved to be much better than I had expected.
(1) Names for things made of two parts are usu. used as plural. But when they are preceded by such unit nouns as a pair of and two pairs of, the number form of the following verb is generally determined by the number marker of the unit noun.
glasses scissors compasses tongs crossroads pliers spectacles trousers pants scales shears tweezers stockings socks shorts gloves jeans
Joe’s new trousers are black and white.
Two pairs of pliers（钳子）are missing from my tool box.
archives档案 clothes 衣服 contents 内容goods货物, effects 财物, papers, greens青菜, looks外貌, manners礼貌, customs进口税, arms武器, riches财富.
--The contents of this book are most fascinating.
--Half his goods are from China
The sweepings of the room have been disposed of.
There are also nouns such as barracks and headquarters, means, series, species, works whose singular and plural number share the same form .
These nouns are treated as plural when used in the plural sense, or vice versa.
Two barracks in the suburbs have been surrounded.
A headquarters was set up to direct the operation
Their headquarters are in Paris
A compound noun is made up of two or more than two words, there are some rules to be followed in its formation. Change the head noun of the compound word into plural.
bystander --- bystanders（旁观者）
footman --- footmen （男仆）
on-looker --- on-lookers（旁观者）
forget-me-not --- forget-me-nots（勿忘我）
go-between ---- go-betweens（中间人）
stand-by ----- stand-bys（靠山）
take-off ---- take-offs（起飞）
stand-in ---- stand-ins（临时演员）
grown-up ---- grown-ups（成年人）
man-servant ----- men-servants
woman journalist ---- women journalists
Attorney [ə'tə:ni] general ----- attorneys general（检查总长）
cut-throat ----- cut-throats（凶手）
sweet-heart ---- sweet-hearts（爱人）
boy friend ----- boy friends lady driver ----- lady drivers maid servant------ maid servants
handful --- handfuls / handsful 一把；一小撮
houseful---- housefuls / housesful 满屋，一屋子
spoonful ---- spoonfuls 一匙
armful ---- armfuls 一抱
cupful ---- cupfuls 一杯
mouthful---- mouthfuls 一口
Material nouns are generally uncountable and have no plural forms. When used to mean the material itself, they are uncountable, but when used in other senses, they are countable.
beer cake cheese cloth coal
cotton fur glue ice ink iron
jam coffee juice meat medicine
metal milk oil paper plastic rain
snow soap soup soil steel sugar
tea wool water wine wood wool etc.
Eg: sands / waters
( large expanse of sand or water)
foods/ fruits ( a variety of food or fruit)
Two strong black coffees, please.
2） Some material nouns can be used as countable nouns , having the meaning of “a kind of”
It was a special tea which tastes of orange blossoms.
She forbids any vessels to enter her territorial waters.
It was now the time of the spring rains.
Abstract nouns are mostly uncountable. But there are a few abstract nouns
that are countable. eg:
a victory--- two victories
experience failure faith fashion
fear freedom fun growth confidence
joy luck purity reality relief
power trust waste wealth weather
welfare work worth youth etc.
--He works hard for the welfare of the poor.
--The oppressive weather lasted only a few days.
--He had always had a warm affection for me.
--He has no sympathy for beggars. (同情)
--He is a man of wide sympathies. （同情心）
--I sent my sympathies to the relatives of the dead. （ 慰问）
--Please tell us about your experiences in Africa.（经历）
--My life in China was an unforgettable experience. （经历）
to have much family = too heavy family burden
to have much winter= a too long spell of cold weather
to have much mouth =to talk too much
to have too little ear= to be not inclined to listen to others
to have room for = to have a need for
to feel the patriot rise= to feel the patriotic feeling rise
more of a fool = more foolish
less of a fool= less foolish
as much as a fool as =as foolish as
too much of a fool = too foolish
some other words are as follows: man, coward, coquette, politician, sportsman, scholar, poet etc.
--He was enough of a man to tell the truth.
--He is something of a poet.
--The girl was a little of a coquette.
There are a few points to be noted.
(Uncountable nouns include abstract nouns and material nouns)
The most used uncountable nouns :
information knowledge experience furniture luggage baggage equipment jewellery advice sugar traffic homework
mail population damage idea clothing bread
cloth meat paper glass soap fruit
2） uncountable nouns can’t be used with such determiners as a，an，one，two，each，many，several，these，those. eg：
a piece of mail 一个邮件
those pieces of information 那些情报
a lot of traffic 繁忙的交通
a plenty of time 充足的时间
（1） Partitives shown by shapes of things：
a loaf of bread 一条面包 a bar of soap 一条肥皂
a cake of soap一块肥皂 a slice of meat一片肉
a lump of sugar 一块方糖
a sheet (piece) of paper一张纸 a block of ice 一块冰 a tube of paste 一筒牙膏
a pack of cigarette一包香烟 a body of water 一汪水
a piece of chalk一支粉笔
a glass of water
a bottle of beer
a bucket of water
a bag of flour
a bowl of rice
a basket of fruit
a basin of water
a cup of tea
a pound of butter an item of news
a pair of shoes a litre of gasoline
a suit of clothing a gallon of gasoline
a set of furniture a yard of cloth
a mass of sand a spoonful of soup