the second war for independence and the upsurge of nationalism 1812 1824 n.
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The Second War for Independence and the Upsurge of Nationalism 1812-1824. Chapter 12. “War Hawks” in the War of 1812. Henry Clay, KY John C. Calhoun, SC Felix Gundy, TN. Madison’s War Declaration Message. Madison asked Congress for a

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war hawks in the war of 1812
“War Hawks” in the War of 1812

Henry Clay, KY John C. Calhoun, SC Felix Gundy, TN

madison s war declaration message
Madison’s War Declaration Message
  • Madison asked Congress for a
  • Declaration of War against the British
  • June of 1812
  • It became “Mr. Madison’s War.”

U.S.S. Constitution

  • Heavy frigate
    • Wooden hulled
    • Three-masted
  • Named by George
  • Washington
  • Oldest commissioned
  • ship in the world
  • Launched in 1797
  • Battle with the
  • Guerrière
    • Earned her the
    • nickname
    • Old Ironsides
  • Home is Boston

U.S.S. Constitution vs. Guerrière 1812

Heavily outweighed and outgunned, the British captain of the Guerrière (foolishly) sought combat. His ship was totally destroyed by the Constitution. Historian Henry Adams saidthisduel “raised the United States in one half hour to the rank of a first-class power in the world.”


General Andrew Jackson

Battle of New Orleans

the hartford convention 1814
The Hartford Convention 1814
  • Wanted financial compensation from the federal government for commercial losses as a result of the embargo and the war
  • Believed that the Constitution should be amended to require
    • A 2/3 vote before an embargo could be imposed
    • A 2/3 vote in Congress before new states could be admitted to the union
    • A 2/3 vote in congress before war was declared
  • Abolition of the 3/5 compromise
  • Excluding foreign born individuals from holding federal offices
  • Limit of the president to one term
  • Prohibit the election of two successive presidents from the same state

John Quincy Adams

  • Son of John Adams
  • Sec. of State under Madison
  • Delegate to Treaty of Ghent
  • Delegate to Rush-Bagot Treaty
  • Author of the Monroe Doctrine
  • Sixth President of the U.S.
the american system
The American System
  • Proposed by
    • Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun
      • Nationalists
  • A tariff
  • Internal Improvements
  • Bank of the United States (BUS)
henry clay
Henry Clay
  • War Hawk in 1812
  • Proposed the American System
  • Secretary of State under John Quincy Adams
  • “The Great Compromiser”
    • Negotiated the Missouri Compromise
    • Negotiated the Compromise Tariff of 1833 which stopped S.C. from seceding from the Union
    • Negotiated the Compromise of 1850
  • Never president, but
  • An extremely influential part of American history
lancaster turnpike
Lancaster Turnpike

Considered the first turnpike in the U.S.

It connected Philadelphia to Lancaster.

Route 30

Lancaster Turnpike
the national road
Also shown on this map is

Wilderness Road

Daniel Boone discovered this Indian Path in 1769

In 1775 he had foresters build a path so that pioneer families could begin to settle into the West

The National Road
the erie canal
The Erie Canal

Roads were too expensive for transporting large shipments of agricultural products to urban markets and manufactured products to rural markets.

robert fulton s clermont 1807
Robert Fulton’s Clermont 1807

Immediately following this demonstration,

Robert Fulton, with his partner

Robert R. Livingston, started commercial steamboat service on the Hudson River between New York City and Albany.

b o railroad
B & O Railroad

Baltimore and Ohio Railroad (B&O) is one of the oldest railroads in the United States, with an original line from the port of Baltimore, Maryland west to the Ohio River at Wheeling, West Virginia and Parkersburg, West Virginia.

monroe doctrine 1823
Monroe Doctrine 1823
  • “Hands off the Americas”
  • Actually written by John Quincy Adams
    • Secretary of State
the marshall court
The Marshall Court
  • Marbury v. Madison (1803)
  • McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
  • Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1824)
  • Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)
  • Worcester v. Georgia (1832)
judicial nationalism

Chief Justice John Marshall’s court

    • 1801-1835
    • Decisions reflected the upsurge in nationalism
    • Bolstered the power of the federal government at the expense of the states
  • Examples
    • McCulloch v. Maryland 1819
    • Dartmouth College Case 1819
    • Gibbons v. Ogden 1824
Judicial Nationalism
mcculloch v maryland 1819
McCulloch v. Maryland 1819

First Bank of the United States

  • Bank of the United States
  • Maryland taxed the Bank
  • Decision
    • “Let the end be legitimate, let it be within the scope of the Constitution , an all means which are appropriate, which are plainly adapted to that end, which are not prohibited, but consist with the letter and spirit of the Constitution, are constitutional.”
    • National supremacy
    • Congress had the power to create the bank
      • Necessary and proper clause
        • Article I Section VIII
      • Implied powers
    • State cannot tax a federal agency (bank)
      • “power to tax involves power to destroy”
dartmouth college v woodward 1819
Dartmouth College v. Woodward 1819
  • New Hampshire attempted to change

Dartmouth College’s charter

  • Daniel Webster
    • Graduate of Dartmouth College
    • Attorney for Dartmouth College
    • Espoused the virtues of nationalism
    • Challenged states’ rights in the Senate
    • Challenged nullification
  • Marshall’s Decision
    • Original charter must stand; it is a contract
    • Constitution protects contracts against state encroachment
      • Article I Section X
  • Result
    • Safeguarded business enterprises from domination by the states’ governments
gibbons v ogden 1824
Gibbons v. Ogden 1824
  • Steamboat case
    • New York state granted a monopoly of waterborne

commerce between New York and New Jersey to Ogden

  • Decision
    • Constitution conferred to Congress alone the control of interstate commerce
      • Article I Section VIII
  • Results
    • Emancipation Proclamation of Commerce
    • Defined commerce broadly
      • Not just buying and selling goods, but
        • transportation, communication, railroads, telegraph, gas, oil, travel, air
    • Broad powers to congress
    • Blow to states