NATIONAL COLLEGE “STEFAN VELOVAN”, CRAIOVA. FAMOUS ROMANIAN CRAFTS. It represents an occupation that we inherited from the depths of times. Pottery had, in the first place, a practical role, but it is also used for decorative purpose. Pottery is a tiring work where skill
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that we inherited from the
depths of times. Pottery had,
in the first place, a practical
role, but it is also used for
decorative purpose. Pottery
is a tiring work where skill
strength and knowledge are
involved. Any mistake can
result in the destruction of
the pot. Usually this job was
reserved for men, women
only taking part in the decoration process.POTTERY
The molding process requires remarkable skills and high speed because the paste mustn’t dry out (sometimes the pot is done in as fast as 40-50 seconds).
After the molding, pots are left to dry out for a few days in the shade and then are burnt in special ovens, but not before they are decorated and sometimes enameled (only the inner part and the margins).
Decorative motifs are mainly geometrical, but plants, birds and animals can also be found.
Doves and fish (Christian symbols) are often painted. The rooster motif is specific to Horezu ceramics.
The most used vegetal motif is the fir twig, which first appeared on prehistoric pots and later on black and red ceramics. It symbolizes the evergreen fir’s everlasting life.
Grapevines (a Christian symbol), wheat ears, clover, grapes, buds, leaves and flowers are also painted.
One of the most beautiful motifs is the Sun which is represented by circles, spirals, whirlpools etc. And it can appear having a human shape.
ICONS PAINTED ON GLASS It spread like a popular craft in Transylvania and Northern Moldavia in the 7th century. Transylvanian icons are distinguished by the highly decorative composition, bright colours, theme and elements of folklore.
The main element is represented by the colours which, remaining under the glass, get a glow that animates the entire scene. The main colours are: red, silver, gold, dark blue, orange and black.
Icons pained on woodThe oldest and most common icons were painted on wood support. Made by peasant painters or by the painters in the monasteries, these are mostly found in Moldavia and Oltenia.
The charm of these icons consists precisely in their naive character. The main saints who are painted are the protective saints. We can also find Jesus, Virgin Mary and the birth scene.
TextilesThe textiles, manufactured in the household, have a very important role in the traditional house as decorative elements. The textiles are made of the raw materials from the household. They have animal or vegetal origin.
The most important decorative textiles of the Romanian traditional art are the woolen rugs and carpets being placed on the walls, on the bed or are even used as a table cover.
Red is the most used color, appearing in a wide variety of tones and shades. It is followed by blue and black.
The Oltenia rugs and carpets are the most valuable, being decorated with geometrical, floral, animal and human motifs. For Oltenia rugs, the border plays a special role. It surrounds the central part and emphasizes its decorative value.
The traditional masks are ancient remains of the collective memory. Masks were used in the fertility, rain calling or hunting rituals. They represent characters from folk mythology.
Only men wear masks. It is forbidden to say the name of the persons under the masks.
These customs are probably the remains
of ancient initiation rituals.