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INVERTEBRATES AND FLUID DYNAMICS : OFF THE GROUND & MOVIN’ AROUND PowerPoint Presentation
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INVERTEBRATES AND FLUID DYNAMICS : OFF THE GROUND & MOVIN’ AROUND. FLIGHT. FLIGHT. Airfoil. Thickness . Chord . Angle of attack. FLIGHT. Standard airfoil. Area of relatively low pressure. LIFT. Area of relatively high pressure. FLIGHT. Lift. Resultant force. Drag.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

INVERTEBRATES AND FLUID

DYNAMICS:

OFF THE GROUND & MOVIN’ AROUND

slide3

FLIGHT

Airfoil

Thickness

Chord

Angle of attack

slide4

FLIGHT

Standard airfoil

Area of relatively low pressure

LIFT

Area of relatively high pressure

slide5

FLIGHT

Lift

Resultant force

Drag

slide6

In flapping flight, need to compromise

As you increase angle of attack

1) lift

2) propulsion

generated

3) Lowering of drag

slide8

MAGNUS EFFECT

LIFT

translation

circulation

+

=

slide11

-

Overall flow

=

Translational flow

circulation

slide13

At the beginning of flight

Establish a counter vortex

slide14

Some coefficients of lift

Bird Re – 7000 2.0

Locust Re – 2000 1.3

Drosophila Re – 200 0.9

slide16

Encarsiaformosa

Wing – 0.6 mm

Mass - .000025 gm

Re - 15

Coefficient of lift (predicted) = 0.02

Coefficient of lift (actual) = 5.0

slide19

Hovering flight

Translational Phase

A) upstroke

High angle of attack

B) downstroke

Rotational Phase

A) pronation

When wing reverses direction

B) supination

slide21

Hovering flight

Red arrows – total force and direction

Blue arrows – wing position

3 Forward motion

2. Rotational lift

1. Delayed Stall

slide24

Vortices around a flying animal

Tip vortices

Bound vortex

Tip vortices

slide26

Propulsion at very low Re’s

Rowing a boat – propulsive stroke is in lower Re (water) than recovery stroke (air)

slide27

Propulsion at very low Re’s

What about smaller animals that have to do both in low Re?

Mymarid wasp

Thrips

Cladoceran

Nepticulid moth

Ptiliid beetle

Dytiscid beetle

Aerial

Aquatic

slide28

Propulsion at very low Re’s

What about smaller animals that have to do both in low Re?

Relative sizes

Size difference and different viscosity of medium similar low Re’s

slide29

Fringed propelling mechanism

Power stroke (fringe expands)

Recovery stroke

(fringe collapses)