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A Case for Shore Based Digital Radio as Basis for e-Navigation. Who am I and what is MARINTEK? A study on future e-Navigation services and their capacity demands A study on today’s and future shore based digital radio systems Conclusions. Beate Kvamstad.

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A Case for Shore Based Digital Radio as Basis for e-Navigation


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    1. A Case for Shore Based Digital Radio as Basis for e-Navigation • Who am I and what is MARINTEK? • A study on future e-Navigation services and their capacity demands • A study on today’s and future shore based digital radio systems • Conclusions

    2. Beate Kvamstad • Research Scientist at MARINTEK (Norwegian Marine Technology Research Institute), e-Maritime department since February 2008 • Master of Science degree from Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) in December 2000 • Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications • Thesis: Implementation of EGNOS Algorithms and Testing in the North Sea • Kongsberg Seatex from 2001 to 2008

    3. Trondheim Bergen Oslo MARINTEK (USA), Inc. Marine Technology Centre, Trondheim MARINTEK Norwegian Marine Technology Research Institute Houston Main office in Trondheim Offices in Oslo and Bergen Subsidiary in Houston; MARINTEK (USA), Inc. Subsidiary in Rio de Janeiro; MARINTEK do Brasil, Ltda. MARINTEK do Brasil, Ltda. Rio de Janeiro

    4. Market Profile MARINTEK carries out contract R&D for marine related industries: • Offshore oil/gas industry • Ship building industry • Shipping • Marine equipment industry MARINTEK is heading for technologically challenging R&D projects: - New advanced product concepts and prototypes - New advanced services for the benefit of our customers, and the society through: - Reduced risks for human lives, environment and capital assets. MARINTEK undertakes multidisciplinary projects and co-operates with associated partners within the SINTEF Group.

    5. MARINTEK has the following shareholders: 6.5 MNOK 56% SINTEF ……………..………………..….: Norwegian Shipowners’ Association : 3.0 MNOK 26% Det Norske Veritas …...………..….….: 1.0 MNOK 9% Found. of Shipbuilders’ Fund for Research and Education ..……….: 0.5 MNOK 4% Directorate of Shipping ………………: 0.5 MNOK 4% Fed. of Norwegian Coastal Shipping : 0.1 MNOK 1% Total Share Capital: 11.6 MNOK Ownership

    6. A study on future e-Navigation services and their capacity demands • Motivation: • To find appropriate and good solutions for e-Navigation data carriers is not trivial. Someone needed to start the discussions and investigations concerning this issue. • Objectives: • To analyse the emerging communication requirements and how these can be translated to higher digital communication bandwidth demands.

    7. Study methodology • Group today's existing maritime services classes of communication services • Analyse each class to determine current bandwidth requirements • Perform a literature study to identify and quantify (with respect to possible bandwidth demands) possible future services • Complement the results from the literature study with other likely services based on the authors’ knowledge of maritime operations • Put the new identified services into the same classes as today’s services and determine new communication requirements

    8. Results 1: Today’s services 5. Operational communication Daily noon reports, machinery reports, arrival and departure reports exchanged with owner and owner’s office. 1. Emergency management Communication related to accidents at sea, either for assistance to other ships or to get aid to oneself 6. Cargo & passenger communication In passenger ships, one will see that the passengers in many cases pay for advanced communication facilities through their private use. This may also be the case for certain cargos, where cargo owner will pay for cargo supervision. 2. Position & safety reporting AIS and LRIT ship position reports, GMDSS emergency alarms as well as ship security alarm systems. AMVER reports can also be included here. 7. Crew infotainment Crew’s private communication 3. Additional navigational information Information to the ship about local navigational issues. Can include differential GPS correction, NAVTEX and some AIS messages. 4. Mandatory ship reporting Reporting to VTS and other ship reporting areas as well as mandatory reporting to port state authorities in conjunction with port calls.

    9. Result 2: Possible future e-Navigation services 1. Emergency management Communication to other ships, communication to SAR, communication to owner’s office. What about the remaining groups? Position & safety reporting Cargo & passenger reporting Crew infotainment 2. Additional navigational information VTS coordination, Maritime Information Objects (MIO), PPU-VTS images, real-time met-ocean data, tug/mooring coordination, load/discharge coordination, port ENC updates. 3. Mandatory ship reporting Ship reporting, coast state notification, port arrival notification. 4. Operational communication Voyage orders and reports, commercial port services, navigational data update (ENC), operational reports, operating manuals, documents, external maintenance and service, weather forecast, telemedicine.

    10. Special purpose applications 100 Mbps e-Navigation Infotainment (crew & passenger communication) Video monitoring Capacity requirements (bps) 1 Mbps Training & qualification Reporting (Mandatory) Technical maintenance Reporting (Operational and navigational) Emergency messaging (SAR) 10 kbps Low Medium High Integrity Result 3: Bandwidth requirements

    11. Emergency management Dedicated narrow band Position and safety reporting AIS based Additional navigational information Mandatory ship reporting General digital radio Nautical Operational communication Crew Crew infotainment Other Cargo and passengers

    12. Shore versus satellite based systems • Inmarsat Fleet Broadband, Iridium OpenPort, Iridium NEXT (estimated available in 2016) • Maritime community depends on SatCom outside reach of shore based systems • Expensive infrastructure development, expensive to operate and expensive to use • Coast state control over transmitting equipment • Mandatory services under IMO regulation (SOLAS) has traditionally been free for users (the ships) • GSM/GPRS/EDGE, 3G/UMTS/Turbo-3G ( LTE), WiFi/WLAN, WiMAX, CDMA 450, Digital VHF (D-VHF: VHF Data, VDL…), AIS • Infrastructure costs will be significantly less than for satellite systems • Availability for general digital ship/shore communication • Heterogeneous approach to e-Navigation (if standardised)

    13. Shore Based Digital Radio • Extending coverage and range at sea for both in-use and novel terrestrial wireless systems/technologies, e.g.: • Cellular: • GSM/GPRS/EDGE • 3G/UMTS/Turbo-3G ( LTE) • Wireless broadband (WBB): • WiFi/WLAN • WiMAX • CDMA 450 (ref. Ice) • Wireless narrowband (WNB): • Digital VHF (D-VHF: VHF Data, VDL…) • AIS • Reclaimed VHF/UHF TV-bands (?) e-Navigation: Extended coverage and range and a bandwidth capacity of at least 200 kbps

    14. Wireless Narrowband (WNB) [1]Throughput is the data rate of the standard - the theoretical maximum throughput available to a single connection under ideal conditions [2]Note: Low spectral efficiency: 0.84 (bit/s)/Hz for Narrowband and 0.6 (bit/s)/Hz for Broadband

    15. Dedicated narrow band systems: Digital VHF • Range: 70 nm ( 130 km) from closest base station • Power: 25 W • Interfaces: Ethernet, RS232 • Data rate: • Narrowband radio: 21 kbps (1 x 25 kHz channel) • Broadband radio: 133 kbps (9 x 25 kHz channels = 225 kHz) • Low spectral efficiency ! • Narrowband radio: 0.84 bps/Hz • Broadband radio: 0.59 bps/Hz (?)

    16. Norwegian Coastal VHF • VHF Data(Yellow coverage) • Analog VHF(Magenta coverage) Highly relevant as a potential data carrier for e-Navigation

    17. Dedicated narrow band systems: AIS • Range: 40 nm ( 75 km) from closest base station • Power: 25 W • Interfaces: Ethernet, RS232 • Data rate: (uplink/downlink) • AIS data is carried by two globally dedicated VHF frequencies (161.975 and 162.025 MHz), with channel spacing of 25 kHz or 12kHz, and 9.6 kbps transmission rate on each frequency Not really relevant as a potential data carrier for e-Navigation • Too low capacity today for congested areas ! • Dedicated to AIS messages

    18. General digital radio: WiMAX Low range Highly relevant as a potential data carrier for e-Navigation Not very relevant for e-Navigation services

    19. Conclusions • A shore based digital communication network will be a good alternative for e-Navigation • e-Navigation can probably be satisfied by a total bandwidth of about 200 kbps per radio cell • The most interesting solution probably is Digital VHF, WiMAX or a WiMAX type of communication solutions in the UHF or VHF bands. • The MarCom and MarSafe projects are currently identifying methods for extending the coverage and range at sea for both in-use and novel terrestrial wireless systems/technologies

    20. References • Rødseth, Ø.J., Kvamstad, B., Digital Communication Bandwidth Requirements for Future e-Navigation Services, to be published • Bekkadal, F., D4.1 – Maritime Communication Technology, MarCom project internal report • www.marcom.no • www.sintef.no/Projectweb/MARSAFE

    21. Thank you for your attention! Beate Kvamstad beate.kvamstad@marintek.sintef.no +47 92 22 22 40