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Incremental Changes. Wind, Water, and Ice. Remember…. Earthquakes and volcanoes cause sudden and catastrophic change. Most shaping or sculpting of Earth’s surface happens by a combination of slow, step by step changes called weathering and erosion . Weathering:.

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incremental changes

Incremental Changes

Wind, Water, and Ice

  • Earthquakes and volcanoes cause sudden and catastrophic change.
  • Most shaping or sculpting of Earth’s surface happens by a combination of slow, step by step changes called weathering and erosion.
  • Mechanical & Chemical process that breaks down rocks by means of water, glacial ice, wind and waves.
  • Occurs when the products of weathering are transported from place to place.
deposition to deposit
Deposition- to deposit
  • The process of these materials being laid down or deposited by wind, water, and ice.
  • Through the deposition process, material is not gained or lost, it just changes form.
  • Weathering and deposition never produces new material.
red deer river
Red Deer River
  • Starts out crystal clear high in the Rockies, and as it travels eastward, accumulates tremendous amounts of silt, sand, and dirt- causing the river to change from clear to chocolate brown.
mechanical weathering
Mechanical weathering
  • Happens when rock is broken apart by physical forces, such as water or wind.
  • In our cold climate, rock is often broken down by water freezing in cracks.
  • This action slowly helps to break apart even the largest rock formation.
chemical weathering
Chemical Weathering
  • Happens when water and oxygen react with the minerals in rocks to produce new minerals.
  • New minerals are usually softer, and can crumble more easily.
  • Acids can wear away rock by dissolving the minerals in them.
biological weathering
Biological weathering
  • Is the wearing away of rock by living things, like roots and stems putting enormous pressure on their surroundings.
effects of moving water
Effects of Moving Water
  • Rivers and streams are probably the most powerful forces of erosion that alter the landscape.
  • As rivers flow, they carry a load of silt, sand, mud, and gravel called sediment.
  • Weathering process takes a long time and is influenced by the nature of the moving water- like the speed or steepness of the terrain.
  • The process of sediments being deposited, usually at the bottom of oceans, lakes, and rivers.
fluvial landforms
Fluvial Landforms
  • These are landforms that are created by running water.
  • In Alberta, the Badlands of Southern Alberta are fluvial landforms.
eroding away
Eroding Away
  • Sometimes, erosion can change the landscape very quickly.
  • Landslides: sudden and fast movement of rocks and soil down a slope.
  • Landslide
glaciers rivers of ice
Glaciers- Rivers of Ice
  • A glacier is a moving mass of ice and snow.
  • For over 2 million years, this force of erosion has visited North America, at least 4 times.
  • Ice once covered areas of Alberta to heights of 600-1000 m and has greatly shaped its landscapes.
  • As glaciers flow, they pick up large fragments of rock that act as grinding tools to carve and scrape the landscape.
  • The glacier grinds the bedrock, the layer of solid rock beneath the loose rock fragments, producing a polished, but scratched, furrowed surface.

When the glacier melts, or retreats, it leaves its eroded rock fragments in the form of small hills called drumlins and moraines and snake-like hills called eskers.

check reflect
Check & Reflect
  • Page 366, #s 1-5
  • Assess your learning: Page 367, 1-10. Open book test! Monday