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STARCH IN ANIMAL FEED. Milica Radosavljević , Marija Milašinović, Zorica Pajić, Milomir Filipović. Maize Research Institute, Zemun Polje, S. Bajića 1 Belgrade-Zemun. OBJECTIVE S

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slide1

STARCH IN ANIMAL FEED

Milica Radosavljević, Marija Milašinović, Zorica Pajić, Milomir Filipović

Maize Research Institute, Zemun Polje, S. Bajića 1

Belgrade-Zemun

slide2

OBJECTIVES

1. To summarise and perceptibly present our the most important results on investigations on a starch role in animal feed and

2. To describe the utility value of grain of different ZP maize hybrids as a raw material in its production.

slide3

INTRODUCTION:

  • STARCH
  • AMYLOSE
  • AMYLOPECTIN
  • STARCH STRUCTUTE
  • CORN AS AN IMPORTANT SOURCE OF STARCH
slide4

STARCH

THE SECOND LARGEST BIOMASS IN THE WORLD

HOMOPOLYSACCHARIDE-GLUCOSE POLYMER

  • MOLECULAR FORMULA: (C6H10O5)n

MAJOR COMPONENTS: AMYLOSE AND AMYLOPECTIN

slide7

Amylopectin

Amylose

Characteristics

Branched

-1,4 and -1,6

50-500 million

Weak

Non-gelling to soft

Reddish brown

Essentially linear

-1,4 (some -1,6)

<0.5 million

Strong

Firm

Blue

Shape

Linkage

Molecular weight

Films

Gel formation

Colour with iodine

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The animal feed production is traditionally one of the greatest maize consumers. Not only in our country, but in many others, maize has suppressed almost all other cereals.

The most important and unique reason for this are its chemical properties and energy values.

As an essential component of the animal production, maize covers from 60 to 90% of energy necessary for functioning of the organism and for the maintenance of a body temperature.

Starch is in a principal carbohydrate and at the same time is an essential chemical constituent of maize grain. Its content averagely amounts to approximately 70%.

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Composition of corn grain

Component Average (%) Typical range (%)

71.3

9.91

4.45

2.66

1.42

64 - 78

8 - 14

3.1 - 5.7

1.8 - 3.5

1.1 - 3.9

Starch

Protein

Fat

Crude fiber

Ash

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Molecular marker assisted selection with the aim of getting a desirable genotype is now routinely applied in maize breeding programmes, which enables genetic control of a molecular starch structure, whereby its properties can be altered.

The performed studies show that the starch granule structure and interactions with other components within the endosperm, as well as, processing conditions influence starch digestibility.

However, in order to determine more detailed parameters of the starch structure that affect animal feed digestibility further systematic studies are necessary.

slide17

Considering directions of nutritive and technological observations, a special attention today should be paid to the development of inbreds and hybrids with specific traits and for special purposes.

Studies of the structure and unique properties of starch of speciality maize hybrids are aimed at hybrids such as waxy, high amylose, high lysine and high protein hybrids, which, again, due to being a raw material for the sustainable animal feed production get their own great and deserved importance

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Approximate amylose and amylopectin content of common corn starches

Starch type

Amylose(%)

Amylopectin (%)

25

<1

55-70 (or higher)

75

>99

45-30 (or lower)

Dent corn

Waxy corn

High-amylose corn

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What makes corn starch so versatile as an inexpensive raw material and ingredient of many feed and food products?

  • GELATINIZATION
  • PASTING
  • RETROGRADATION
  • EFFECTS OF pH, SHARE, AND OTHER INGRADIENTS
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Starch gelatinizationis the collapse (disruption) of molecular order within the starch granule manifested in irreversible changes in properties such as granular swelling, native crystalline melting, loss of birefringence, and starch solubilization.

  • The temperature at which starch begins to undergo these changes is referred as the gelatinization temperature
slide21

Pasting is the phenomenon following in the dissolution of starch. It involves granular swelling, exudation of molecular components from the granule, and eventually, total disruption of the granules.

  • Peak viscosity is the point at which, during heating in water, gelatinized starch reaches its maximum viscosity.
slide22

The effect of pH on starch gelatinization is an important consideration.

      • Shear can also have a dramatic impact on starch behaviour.
  • Because feed and food products are usually quite complex, the effect of other ingredients also has to be considered when evaluating starch functionality in terms of viscosity. Fats, sugars, proteins, and salts can all influence starch gelatinization, pasting and retrogradation.
slide23

MATERIAL AND METHODES

-Nativne corn starches and grain of ZP corn hybrids.

*Content of starch and other basic chemical constituents of corn grain (contents of protein, oil, crud fibre, ash)

*Chemical structure and functional properties of corn starch (contents of amylose, amylipectin and resistant starch, termochemical properties and viscosity)

*Maize starch and grain digestibility

-enzymatic hydrolysis by -amylase

-in vitro digestibility by Tolley and Terry

slide24

RESULT AND DISCUSSION

The chemical content and structure, functional properties and the digestibility of starch and maize grain, as a basic component in animal feed production, are described and discussed in this study.

The content of starch and other basic chemical constituents of the grain, i.e. the chemical composition of maize grain

is its most important property, not only for food and feed, but also for the remaining of its uses. As a highly yielding carbohydrate plant, maize is very competitive in regard to other cereals in the animal feed production.

slide26

Chemical structure and functional properties of maize starch

Starch is one of the most important animals source of energy. The mechanisms of it degradation is very complex. The amylose to amylopectin ratio is important factor that affects the speed and the degree of starch degradation and its digestibility and consumption by animals.

In recent times resistant starches have been attracting the attention of many researches world-wide due to two reasons: potential positive effects on human health that can contribute to prevention of certain diseases, as well as, due to their functional properties.

slide28

The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) method was applied to study the most important functional property, gelatinisation, and to determine thermo-chemical parameters of selected samples

slide30

The studies of gelatinisation and viscosity of maize starch are of enormous practical significance for the animal feed production, especially feed that is made by the application of a modern procedure of thermal processing of raw materials, for both the production process itself and for usability of nutrients in the animal organism.

Corn starch and grain digestibility

Not only the starch structure and its functional properties from the aspect of a starch role in the animal feed, but also its digestibility is also important.

slide34

CONCLUSION

Results described and discussed in the present study show not only the existence of the differences related to the maize grain starch grain, its structure and functional properties, components mostly affecting maize yield as a basic component in the animal feed production, but also the existence of differences in the digestibility of different maize starches and the digestibility of maize grain that depends on the genetic background, i.e. hybrid.

These results are comparable with results obtained in leading research centres all over the world.

slide35

Considering the role and the application of starch in animal feed, its chemical structure, functional properties and the digestibility represent unavoidable and very fundamental parameters.

The most important chemical characteristic and the reason for maize advantage over other cereals in animal nutrition is certainly its high starch content, i.e. the high energy content.

These studies are a contribution and the starting point for further studies of the fundamental and practical importance within the field of the utilisation of maize, the most important natural renewable raw material for our country in the sustainable animal feed production.