Condition for the life emergence
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We need to know the ancient Earth’s atmosphere (& Mars, Venus)  Estimate the history of atmospheric escape from data OR make guess from exoplanets or Titan. We need to know what kind of bio-molecules can be formed in different space conditions.

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Condition for the life emergence

  • We need to know the ancient Earth’s atmosphere (& Mars, Venus)  Estimate the history of atmospheric escape from data OR make guess from exoplanets or Titan.

  • We need to know what kind of bio-molecules can be formed in different space conditions.

  • We need to know the survival condition for bio-molecules & microorganisms in space.

Condition for the life emergence?

 Transport of life in space?

(4) Understanding vehicle (asteroid, comet, meteor)


Be informal and informing way

Today, we exchange views of Venus)

Plasma aspect

Chemical aspect

Biological aspect

Be informal and informing way



Role of ionosphere in escape

Role of ionosphere in escape Venus)

very little role

essential role

no example

Ionopause pressure (PB) balances with both SW dynamic pressure (PD=swvsw2) &ionospheric plasma pressure PP (= ikTi)


Expected o h ratio of escape
expected O/H ratio of escape Venus)

#1) depending on relative extent of ionosphere and exosphere

#2) because non-thermal > thermal for Earth-sized planet


Need to add nitrogen n o ratio

  • Formation of many pre-biotic molecules is most likely related to the amount and the oxidation state of N (NH3, N2, NOx) in the ancient Earth (Miller and Urey, 1959).

  • One cannot use the present abundance of N, O, H as the ancient value.

  • Abundance of N is quite different between planets

  • * Earth: 75% of atmospheric mass

  • * Venus ~ 2.5 times as much as the Earth (3% of Patom.Venus)

  • * Titan ~ 1.5 times as much as the Earth (98% of Patom.Titan)

  • * Mars ~ only 0.01% of the Earth (O is abundant)

Need to add Nitrogen (& N/O ratio)


Ionopause vs euv fuv major
Ionopause vs. EUV/FUV (major) related to the amount and the oxidation state of N (NH

  • High ionopause during solar maximum for both Venus and Mars.

  • Frequent SEP (during solar maximum) probably caused high balance altitude by heating of the ionosphere.

 The ancient condition is this extreme.

Ionopause vs. SW/IMF (minor)

  • High SW PD decreases the altitude of pressure balance.

(d) strong (stable) IMF  no change as long as SW PD > SW PB

(e) variable IMF  lower balance altitude (by cancellation of B)