Uml profile to support requirements engineering with kaos
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UML Profile to Support Requirements Engineering with KAOS. Presented by Chin-Yi Tsai. Outline. Introduction The Stereotypes of the KAOS Profile Model Integration Case Study Conclusion. Introduction.

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  • Introduction

  • The Stereotypes of the KAOS Profile

  • Model Integration

  • Case Study

  • Conclusion


  • One of the most important approaches to requirement engineering of the ten year is the KAOS model.

Nonstandard graphical notation

The notation and tool are not familiar to many.

Introduction cont d
Introduction (cont’d)

  • Introduce a profile that allows the KAOS model to be represented in the UML.

  • A UML profile can increase the usefulness of KAOS.

  • The ability to model the KAOS approach in the UML offers the potential for extra tool support.

Informal representation of the profile



Introduction cont d1

KAOS Model





Meta-model layer

Model layer

User model (=instance) layer

Introduction (cont’d)

  • KAOS

    • Goal-oriented methodology

    • Rich ontology for capturing and modeling requirement

    • Refinement and operationalization

    • Temporal logic for verification

  • KAOS and the UML

Introduction cont d2
Introduction (cont’d)

  • A KAOS model is s semantic network in which the nodes are concepts and the connection between nodes are associations between the concepts.

  • There are two parts to a KAOS model

    • A graphical representation of the semantic network together with a supplementary textural definition

    • The optional formal representation expressed in a temporal logic

  • KAOS semantic network

    • stereotyped classes

    • association

  • The informal and formal descriptions

    • tags of these stereotyped class

    • association.

Introduction cont d3



Introduction (cont’d)

  • Formal expressions need to be rewritten using only ASCII characters since most UML editors do not support the symbol of the KAOS temporal logic.

    • OCL

  • The UML is extended by introducing new stereotypes to the language.

  • A particular extension of the UML is packaged as profile.

    • We can think of a profile as an extension of the UML meta-model layer

Introduction cont d4
Introduction (cont’d)

The stereotype <<reduces>> is a specialisation of the existing UML abstraction stereotype <<refines>>.


  • <<kobject>>

  • <<kentity

  • <kevent>>

  • <<kagent>>

  • <<goal>>

  • <<requisite>>

  • <<requirement>>

  • <<input>>

  • <<output>>

  • <<capability>>

  • <<performs>>

  • <<monitors>>

  • <<controls>>

  • <<concerns>>

  • <<reduces>>

  • <<conflicts>>

  • <<assumption>>

  • <<operationalises>>

  • <<responsibility>>




  • informalDef

  • formalDef

  • form

  • soft

  • instanceOf

  • priority

  • category

  • invariant

  • strengthenInv

  • frequency

  • domPrecondition

  • domPostcondition

  • reqPrecondition

  • reqPostcondition

  • reqTriggercondition

  • realm

The stereotypes of the kaos profile
The Stereotypes of the KAOS Profile











  • A goal that can be reduced no further and is assignable to an individual agent either in the domain (Requirement) or in the software-to-be (Assumption) is a requisite.

Model integration
Model Integration

  • Modeled in the UML, a KAOS model may be incorporated into the reset of a system’s UML design documentation, seamlessly linking the documentation for the requirements elicitation part of a project to the whole.

Requirements traceability

Requirement Model

Design Model


Requirements Traceability

  • <<operationalises>>

  • <<responsibility>>

  • <<ensures>>

  • <<requisite>>

  • <<kaction>>

  • <<kagent>>

  • <kobject>>

Interleaving models
Interleaving Models

  • A more interesting possibility resulting from the profile is the interleaving of KAOS models with standard UML models.

Case study
Case Study

  • A portion of the advanced automatic train control (AATC) system used in San Francisco’s Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) rail service.

  • To serve more passengers by running trains more closely spaced.

  • Steps:

    • Identification and Formalisation of Primary Goals

    • Identification of Objects

    • Identification of Requirements and Agent Assignments

    • Goal Operationalisation

Identification and formalisation of primary goals
Identification and Formalisation of Primary Goals

  • By searching the problem statement for keywords such as “purpose”, “objective”, “in order to”, etc..

    • Some initial goals can be identified at an early stage.

Identification of objects
Identification of Objects

  • The definition of goals derives the identification of objects.