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Chapter 28 Respiratory Tract Infections, Neoplasms , and Childhood Disorders. Areas Involved in Respiratory Tract Infections. Upper respiratory tract Nose, oropharynx , and larynx Lower respiratory tract Lower airways and lungs. General symptoms of respiratory disease.
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The common cold
The most common viral pathogens for the “common cold” are rhinovirus, parainfluenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus and coronavirus.
Treatment of influenza:
Bed rest, fluids, warmth
Influenza vaccine :
Provides protection against certain A and B influenza strains that are expected to be prevalent in a certain year.
The vaccine must be updated and administered yearly to be effective but will not be effective against influenza strains not included in the vaccine.
The influenza vaccine is particularly indicated in elderly people, in individuals weakened by other disease and in health-care workers
Drugs for Treating Influenza:
Individuals Most at Risk for Pneumonia
A second classification scheme for pneumonia is based on the specific structures of the lung that the organisms infect and includes typical and atypical pneumonia.
• Usually bacterial in origin.
• Organisms replicate in the spaces of the alveoli.
• Inflammation and fluid accumulation are seen in the alveoli.
• White cell infiltration and exudation can been seen on chest radiographs.
• High fever, chest pain, chills, and malaise are present.
• Purulent sputum is present.
• Some degree of hypoxemia is present.
• Usually viral in origin.
• Organisms replicate in the spaces around the alveoli.
• Milder symptoms than typical pneumonia.
• Lack of white cell infiltration in alveoli.
• Lack of fluid accumulation in the alveoli.
• Not usually evident on radiographs.
• May make the patient susceptible to bacterial pneumonia.
Treatment of pneumonia:
• Antibiotics if bacterial in origin. The health-care provider should consider the possibility that antibiotic-resistant organisms are present.
• Oxygen therapy for hypoxemia.
• A vaccine for pneumococcal pneumonia is currently available and highly effective. This vaccine should be considered in high-risk individuals.
The dense white encircling tumor mass is arising from the visceral pleura and is a mesothelioma.
Trachea and major bronchi
Lower respiratory tract
Bronchi and alveoli
Creation of negative pressure
Effects of CO2/pH
Role of inflammatory mediators
Increase airway responsiveness by
Increasing mucus secretion
Producing injury to the mucosal lining of the airwaysPhysiology of Airway Disease
Bronchiectasisoccurs when there is obstruction or infection with inflammation and destruction of bronchi so that there is permanent
There are two major types of emphysema: centrilobular (centriacinar) and panlobular (panacinar).
Dyspnea and fatigue
Signs of right heart failure (corpulmonale)
A disorder characterized by an elevation of pressure within the pulmonary circulation
Pulmonary arterial hypertensionPulmonary Hypertension
This is another sqamous cell carcinoma that extends from hilum to pleura.
Increased sensitivity to changes in ventilation perceived through central nervous system mechanisms
Reduced ventilatory capacity or breathing reserve
Stimulation of neural receptors in the muscle fibers of the intercostals and diaphragm and of receptors in the skeletal joints
Primary lung diseases
Neuromuscular disordersMechanisms Involved in Dyspnea