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Arousal, Behavior, and Affective Tone. Chapter 6. I. Arousal and Performance. A. An Analogy for Arousal Arousal: mobilization or activation of energy for and during behavior. Arousal increases the vigor of behavior and affects the efficiency. I. Arousal and Performance.

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i arousal and performance
I. Arousal and Performance
  • A. An Analogy for Arousal
    • Arousal: mobilization or activation of energy for and during behavior.
    • Arousal increases the vigor of behavior and affects the efficiency.
i arousal and performance1
I. Arousal and Performance
  • B. Categories of Arousal
    • 1. Physiological Arousal
      • Changes in sympathetic nervous system, e.g., heart rate, breathing, muscle tension, and perspiration.
    • 2. Brain Arousal
      • Positron emission topography and magnetic resonating imaging measure blood, glucose use, and oxygen flow in active brain areas.
    • 3. Psychological Arousal
      • Activation-Deactivation Adjective Check List measures the degree of energetic (tired-lively) arousal and tense (calm-anxious) arousal.
      • Energetic is highest midday and lowest early morning and night.
i arousal and performance2
I. Arousal and Performance
  • C. Source of Arousal
    • 1. Stimuli
      • Cue function determines type of response.
      • Arousing function determines intensity of response.
    • 2. Collative Variables
      • Stimulus novelty, complexity and incongruity determine arousal.
    • 3. Incentives
      • They energize approach/avoidance behavior and heighten arousal.
    • 4. Tasks
      • Person becomes aroused to perform a task based on need, value of task incentive, and likelihood of success.
i arousal and performance3
I. Arousal and Performance
  • D. Arousal within and among Individuals
      • Stimulation increases arousal. Individuals vary in degree of increase.
  • E. Dimensionality of Arousal
      • Unidimensionality: arousal is a single dimension that ranges from sleep to excitement.
      • Directional fractionation of response: arousal varies along several dimensions that do not all correlate with one another.
i arousal and performance4
I. Arousal and Performance
  • F. Arousal and Behavior
    • 1. Inverted-U Relationships
      • As stimulation or arousal increases, performance increases, levels off, and then declines.
      • Trait anxiety: personality trait to perceive environment negatively.
      • State anxiety: situation evokes apprehension or tension.
    • 2. Yerkes-Dodson Law
      • Arousal interacts with task complexity: low arousal for best performance on difficult tasks; high arousal for best performance on easy tasks.
    • 3. Zones of Optimal Functioning
      • Individual inverted-U curves each with a zone of optimal arousal where an athlete performs best.
i arousal and performance5
I. Arousal and Performance
  • G. Explanations for Arousal-Performance Relationships
    • 1. Arousal as Response Magnifier
      • Arousal increases strength of all responses, both correct and incorrect.
i arousal and performance6
I. Arousal and Performance
  • 2. Cusp Catastrophe Model
    • Cognitive and physiological arousal interact: at higher levels of cognitive, increases in physiological produces optimal performance (cusp), further increases shatters performance (catastrophe).
  • 3. Cue Utilization Hypothesis
    • With increased arousal, less attention is given to problem cues.
  • 4. Arousal and Memory
    • As arousal increases, there is better recall of central detail and a decline in recall of peripheral detail.
  • 5. Cool and Hot Memory Systems
    • Cool memory in hippocampus works best under low arousal and hot memory (amygdala) works best under high arousal.
ii arousal and affective tone
II. Arousal and Affective tone
  • A. Variation in Affective Tone
      • Arousal may be tinged with positive or negative affect.
    • 1. Optimal Level of Stimulation Theory
      • As arousal increases, the degree of pleasantness of affective tone increases, levels off, and then decreases in an inverted-U fashion.
    • 2. Arousal Regulation via the Negative Feedback Loop
      • A person maintains a desired level of arousal by changes in behavior.
      • Arousal model of interpersonal intimacy: people adjust their behavior (eye contact) with others to maintain a comfortable level of arousal.
ii arousal and affective tone1
II. Arousal and Affective tone
  • A. Variation in Affective Tone
    • 3. When Arousal Is Too Low
      • Sensory deprivation: reducing sensory stimulation from touch, sound, and light to lowest level possible. Situation is boring and aversive.
  • B. Arousal, Stimulus Complexity, and Preference
      • Intermediate complexity is preferred over lesser or greater complexity.
      • Repeated exposure decreases perceived stimulus complexity.
      • This results in decreased liking for simple stimuli and increased liking for
      • complex stimuli.
ii arousal and affective tone2
II. Arousal and Affective tone
  • C. Incongruity-Resolution and Affect
    • 1. Schemas, Assimilation, and Accommodation
      • Schemas: knowledge structures of environmental regularities.
      • Assimilation: new information is integrated into an existing schema.
      • Accommodation: schema is modified to assimilate new information.
ii arousal and affective tone3
II. Arousal and Affective tone
  • 2. Schema Incongruity Model
    • Successful assimilation and accommodation of information yields positive affect. Unsuccessful accommodation yields negative affect.
  • 3. Incongruity Resolution, Arousal, and Humor
    • A punch line is resolved when it is assimilated into an alternative schema imbedded in the joke stem. This resolution triggers humor.
  • 4. Arousal-Safety Model of Laughter
    • Incongruities judged safe trigger humor; judged dangerous trigger fear
ii arousal and affective tone4
II. Arousal and Affective tone
  • D. Music
    • 1. Music Regulates Arousal
      • Music alters arousal and induces positive or negative affect.
    • 2. Incongruity Resolution and Appreciation of Music
      • The enjoyment of music comes from assimilating pieces of music into activated musical schemas.
    • 3. Musical Complexity
      • As musical complexity increases, liking of the music increases, levels off, and then decreases (inverted-U relationship).
ii arousal and affective tone5
II. Arousal and Affective tone
  • D. Music
    • 4. Musical Complexity and Experience
      • With experience, complex music is enjoyed more and simple music is enjoyed less.
    • `Musical grammar processor: it assimilates musical notes into a primitivemusical grammar processor that works the same way each time and is sealed off from memory.