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METODOLOGI PENYELIDIKAN KOLEJ UNIV INSANIAH. Slide No.1. Science.

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Metodologi penyelidikan kolej univ insaniah

METODOLOGI PENYELIDIKAN KOLEJ UNIV INSANIAH

Slide No.1


Science
Science

  • Science is a method of inquiry -- Kaedah mencari jawapan kepada sesuatu masalah – satu cara mempelajari dan mengetahui tentang perkara di sekeliling kita. Pencarian ini dilakukan secara sedar, berpanjangan dan mendalam (kadangkala dengan menggunakan bantuan statistik)


Science cont
Science (cont)

  • It is not so much as what we know but how we know it.


What is research apa itu penyelidikan
What is Research (Apa itu Penyelidikan)

  • Proses mencari penyelesaian kepada sesuatu masalah.

  • Di lakukan melalui kajian menyeluruh yang merangkumi penganalisaan faktor-faktor berkaitan.


Penyelidikan saintifik
Penyelidikan Saintifik

Penyelidikan saintifik mempunyai fokus keatas penyelesaian masalah. Ia menggunakan pendekatan logikal, tersusun (organized), dan rigorous untuk mengenalpasti masalah, mendapatkan data, menganalisanya, dan membuat kesimpulan daripadanya.


Purpose of research tujuan penyelidikan
Purpose of Research (Tujuan Penyelidikan)

  • Reporting (Melaporkan)

  • Description (Menggambarkan)

  • Explanation (Penjelasan)

  • Prediction (Ramalan)


Reporting melaporkan
Reporting (Melaporkan)

  • An inquiry conducted to provide an account or summation of data.

  • Very little inference or conclusion drawing.

  • Purist claim this is not research, although carefully gathered data can have great value.


Description memberi gambaran
Description (Memberi gambaran)

  • Tries to discover answers to the questions of who, what, when, where, and sometimes how.

  • Researcher attempts to describe or define a subject, by creating a profile of a group of problems, people, or events.

  • May or may not have the potential of drawing powerful inferences.

  • Does not answer the question why.


Explanation penjelasan
Explanation (Penjelasan)

  • Goes beyond description by attempting to explain the reasons for a phenomenon that the descriptive study only observed.

  • Researcher uses theories or at least hypotheses to account for the forces that cause a certain phenomenon to occur.


Prediction ramalan
Prediction (Ramalan)

  • Also rooted in theory.

  • Having able to explain a phenomena, researcher wants to be able to predict the occurrence of the phenomena


Type of research jenis penyelidikan
Type of Research (Jenis Penyelidikan)

  • Applied Research (Penyelidikan Gunaan)

  • Basic Research (Penyelidikan Asas)

  • Evaluative Research (Penyelidikan Penilaian)

  • Action Research (Penyelidikan tindakan)


Applied research penyelidikan aplikasi
Applied Research (Penyelidikan Aplikasi)

  • Penyelidikan yang bertujuan untuk menyelesaikan suatu masalah yang sedang dihadapi.

  • Has a practical problem-solving emphasis.

  • Research is conducted to reveal answers to specific questions related to action, performance or policy needs.

  • The intention is to apply results of finding to solve specific problems.


Contoh
Contoh

  • Local Authority – MDKP mengenal pasti cara pembuangan sampah dan sikap penduduk tentang cara membuang sampah

  • 1 Malaysia policy – Apakah rakyat menerima konsep 1 Malaysia? Apakah pendapat mereka tentang konsep 1 Malaysia?


Basic research penyelidikan asas
Basic Research (Penyelidikan Asas)

  • Juga dikenali sebagai penyelidikan tulen.

  • Penyelidikan yang menghasilkan ilmu baru.

  • Aims to solve perplexing questions (problems) of a theoretical nature.

  • Contoh: penyelidikan tentang bagaimana virus H1N1 merebak.


Basic research penyelidikan asas1
Basic Research (Penyelidikan Asas)

  • Ciri ciri

  • 1. Untuk memahami sesuatu fenomena, konsep, kejadian

  • Untuk meningkatkan maklumat tentang aspek yang dikaji

  • Kajian gunaan guna maklumat daripada kajian asas untuk mulakan penyelidikan

  • Skop tidak luas


  • Menerima atau menolak teori atau data berdasarkan kajian empirikal yang lepas

  • Memberi gambaran, meramal, menjelaskan prinsip-prinsip asas tentang sesuatu tingkah laku

  • Contoh: Faktor-faktor yang berkaitan dengan kurang keterlibatan ibubapa di luarbandar dengan aktiviti PIBG sekolah ialah faktor SES dan personaliti ibubapa. Kajian -- kenalpasti ciri-ciri SES dan personaliti ibubapa. Hasil kajian ini – digunakan untuk program galakan ibubapa dalam PIBG di sekolah-sekolah luar bandar


Penyelidikan penilaian
Penyelidikan Penilaian empirikal yang lepas

  • Mengkaji kesan atau hasil daripada intervensi atau ujikaji yang dijalankan

  • Menilai impak sesuatu program intervensi program

  • Contoh:

  • Adakah program “Perumahan rakyat termiskin” membantu mengurangkan taraf kemisikinan di kalangan rakyat di luar bandar


Penyelidikan tindakan
Penyelidikan tindakan empirikal yang lepas

  • Menggabungkan kajian asas, gunaan dan penilaian


Paradigma penyelidikan
Paradigma Penyelidikan empirikal yang lepas

  • A paradigm reflects a basic set of philosophical beliefs about the nature of the world. It provides guidelines and principles concerning the way research is conducted within the paradigm. The methods and techniques used in the research should be in sympathy with these guidelines and principles.


Paradigm of research cont
Paradigm of Research (cont) empirikal yang lepas

  • Essentially there is more than one way to make sense of things around us.

  • Eg. Road accidents

  • Engineers, police, administrators, politicians, psychologist, sociologist, etc, all explain the same phenomenon quite in different ways.

  • Underlying these different explanations or theories, are paradigms i.e the fundamental models or frames of reference we use to organize observations and reasoning concerning the phenomena.


Paradigms of research
Paradigms of Research empirikal yang lepas

  • Two dominant paradigms in sociobehavioral research:

  • Positivism

  • Interpretivism


Positivism
Positivism empirikal yang lepas

  • Rooted in natural science

  • Methods of natural science used in social science research i.e society could be observed and explained logically and rationally.

  • The underlying assumption of positivism is that there are universal laws governing human behavior waiting to be discovered.


Positivism cont
Positivism (cont) empirikal yang lepas

  • Movement started by Auguste Comte (1798-1857)

  • He coined the term sociologie in 1822

  • Most importantly, he identified society as a phenomenon that can be studied scientifically

  • Religious belief replaced with scientific study and objectivity


Ciri ciri penyelidikan positivist
Ciri-Ciri Penyelidikan Positivist empirikal yang lepas

  • Rooted in natural science

  • Menggunakan ukuran objektif dan tepat

  • Menggunakan data kuantitatif

  • Kemukakan hipotesis

  • Pengumpulan data adalah rigorous

  • Menggunakan kaedah statistik

  • Hallmark of positivist research is replicability


Interpretivist research
Interpretivist Research empirikal yang lepas

  • Positivist research assume there are underlying universal laws that govern human activity waiting to be discovered.

  • However the study of man and society in history is different from the study of inanimate nature because the study of man and society involve subjective understanding


Interpretivist research cont
Interpretivist Research (cont) empirikal yang lepas

  • Positivist methodology of the natural science were found to be inadequate to the understanding of human phenomena except as natural objects.

  • Positivism provides no room for the idea that history and society were human creations and that this constituted the essence of all social forms.

  • Human society is bound by history. Therefore the reality of human existence is socially constructed and is dynamic and changing according to different contextual situations.


Interpretivist research cont1
Interpretivist Research (cont) empirikal yang lepas

  • In interpretivist research, the researcher has to be ‘involved’ in the research in order to understand human activity.

  • This requires a wholly different but still well-grounded method of inquiry to that of the natural sciences.

  • The method has to recognize the actions, events and artifacts from within human life.

  • Knowledge of persons could only be gained through the interpretative procedure grounded in the imaginative recreation of the experiences of others.


Interpretivist paradigm
Interpretivist Paradigm empirikal yang lepas

  • The social world is constructed

  • It has order and form but these are not objective

  • Subjectivity and the identification of shared realities are the aims of the researcher


Types of research jenis penyelidikan
Types of Research (Jenis Penyelidikan) empirikal yang lepas

  • Quantitative (Kuantitatif)

  • Qualitative (Kualitatif)


Quantitative research penyelidikan kuantitatif
Quantitative Research (Penyelidikan Kuantitatif) empirikal yang lepas

  • Kajian yang menggunakan data empirikal untuk menyelidik sesuatu fenomena.

  • Study that employs empirical data to investigate phenomena.


Qualitative research penyelidikan kualitatif
Qualitative Research (Penyelidikan Kualitatif) empirikal yang lepas

  • Mengkaji secara teliti dan mendalam suatu fenomena dengan melihat satu kes atau satu unit analisis.

  • In-depth study of phenomena by observing a particular case or one unit of analysis.

  • Research that produce descriptive data i.e people’s own written or spoken words and observable behavior.


Styles of thinking jenis pemikiran
Styles of Thinking (Jenis Pemikiran) empirikal yang lepas

  • Knowledge (ilmu) can be derived through diperolehi melalui):

  • Empiricism

  • Rationalism


Styles of thinking
Styles of Thinking empirikal yang lepas

Rationalism

(formal structural proof)

Postulational.

Self-evident truth.

.Scientific Method

.Method of Authority

Literary.

Empiricism

(observable concrete data)

Idealism

(highly interpretative

ideas)

Untested opinion.

Existentialism

(informal process)


Empiricism
Empiricism empirikal yang lepas

  • Observations and propositions derived through methods of inductive logic.

  • Empiricist attempt to describe, explain and make predictions through observation.

  • Empiricism relies on observable concrete data.


Scientific method
Scientific Method empirikal yang lepas

  • One of the preeminent source of knowledge.

  • Scientific method is heavily empirical i.e relies on observable, concrete data derived from experience through methods of inductive logic including mathematics and statistics (empiricism).


Tenets of the scientific method
Tenets of the Scientific Method empirikal yang lepas

  • Direct observation of the phenomena

  • Clearly defined variables, methods, and procedures.

  • Empirically testable hypotheses.

  • The ability to rule out rival hypotheses.

  • The statistical rather than linguistic justification of conclusions.

  • The self-correcting process.


Scientific method cont
Scientific Method (cont) empirikal yang lepas

  • Scientific method also uses theoretical means that are based on deductive reasoning. Reason becomes the primary source of knowledge and can be deduced from known laws (rationalism –formal structural proofs).


Rationalism
Rationalism empirikal yang lepas

  • Reason is the primary source of knowledge.

  • Differ from empiricism in that rationalist believe all knowledge can be deduced from known laws or basic truths of nature because there are underlying laws that structure the world logically.

  • Relies on formal structural proofs.

  • Problems are resolved through formal logic or mathematics that operates independently of observation and data collection.


Deductive deduktif reasoning
Deductive (Deduktif) Reasoning empirikal yang lepas

  • The process by which we arrive at a reasoned conclusion by logical generalization of a known fact.

  • Mencapai satu kesimpulan dengan membuat generalisasi daripada fakta-fakta yang di ketahui.

  • It is a form of inference that purports to be conclusive i.e the conclusion must necessarily follow from the reasons given.

  • For deduction to be correct it must be both true and valid i.e the premises (reasons) given for the conclusion must agree with the real world (be true).

  • The premise must be arranged in a form such that the conclusion must necessarily follow from the premise.

  • Conclusion is derived by generalizing from facts


Deductive reasoning cont
Deductive Reasoning (cont) empirikal yang lepas

  • A deduction is valid if it is impossible for the conclusions to be false if the premises are true.

  • Example

  • Premise 1: Pupils with high IQ are intelligent.

  • Premise 2: Asif has a high IQ.

  • Conclusion: Asif is intelligent


Inductive induktif reasoning
Inductive (Induktif) Reasoning empirikal yang lepas

  • The process where we observe certain phenomena and on this basis arrive at conclusions.

  • Memerhati sesuatu fenomena dan seterusnya membuat kesimpulan.

  • In induction we logically establish a general proposition based on observed facts.

  • There is no strength of relationship between reasons and conclusions in induction.

  • To induce is to draw a conclusion from one or more particular facts or pieces of evidence.

  • The conclusion support the facts, and the facts support the conclusions.

  • Researcher observes a phenomena and then makes conclusion.


Inductive reasoning cont
Inductive Reasoning (cont) empirikal yang lepas

  • Example.

  • Push the switch in the lecture room and the light fails to go on – this is a fact.

  • Why doesn’t the light go on?

  • The bulb has burned out (know from past experience).

  • This conclusion is only a hypothesis because it is only one explanation.

  • Other reasons: electrical power is down; switch malfunction, etc.


Inductive reasoning cont1
Inductive Reasoning (cont) empirikal yang lepas

  • In inductive reasoning, the inductive conclusion is an inferential jump beyond the evidence presented.

  • While one conclusion explains the fact, other conclusions can explain the fact.

  • It can be that none of the conclusions advanced correctly explains the fact.


Combining induction and deduction
Combining Induction and Deduction empirikal yang lepas

  • Double movement of reflective thought (John Dewey) is a process in which induction and deduction is used in research in a sequential manner.

  • Induction occurs when we observe a fact and ask, “Why is this?”

  • We advance a tentative explanation (hypothesis) to answer the question.

  • Deduction is the process by which we test whether the hypothesis is capable of explaining the fact.


Combining induction and deduction cont
Combining Induction and Deduction (cont) empirikal yang lepas

  • Example

  • Push light switch and find no light.

  • “Why no light?”

  • Infer conclusion (hypothesis) – explain the fact that the bulb burned out.

  • Use hypothesis to conclude (deduce) the light will not go on when push the switch – know from experience that burned-out bulb will not light.

  • Gather info. To see if deduction is true:

  • A new bulb put in the lamp will result in light when switch is pushed.

  • Put new bulb and push switch. Light goes on.


Hypothetico deductive model
Hypothetico-Deductive Model empirikal yang lepas

  • Scientific knowledge is obtained through inductive (empirical approaches) and through theoretical means (based on deductive reasoning)

  • The interpretation of scientific explanation as a marriage between empirical conception (empiricism) and the certainties of deductive logic (rationalism) is known as the H-D Model.


Hypothetico deductive model cont
Hypothetico-Deductive Model (cont) empirikal yang lepas

  • According to the H-D model, scientific theory consisted of a set of statements connected by logical rules.

  • From this initial statements, hypothesis are deduced which could be tested against empirical observation.

  • An event is considered to be explained if it could be shown to be a logical consequence of the theoretical statements.


Hypothetico deductive method cont
Hypothetico-Deductive Method(cont) empirikal yang lepas

  • The seven steps involved in the H-D Model of research:

  • 1. Observation (Pemerhatian)

  • 2. Preliminary Info. Gathering (Kutipan Data Awal)

  • 3. Theory formulation (Formulasi Theori)

  • 4. Hypothesizing (Penentuan Hipotesis)

  • 5. Data collection (Kutipan Data)

  • 6. Data analysis (Analisis Data)

  • 7. Deduction (Deduksi)


Hallmarks of scientific research ciri utama penyelidikan saintifik
Hallmarks of Scientific Research (Ciri Utama Penyelidikan Saintifik)

  • Purposiveness (Bertujuan)

  • Rigor

  • Testability (Boleh Uji)

  • Replicability (Replikabiliti)

  • Precision (Ketepatan) and Confidence (Keyakinan)

  • Objectivity (Objektiviti)

  • Generalizability (Menyeluruh)

  • Parsimony (Hemat)


Purposiveness bertujuan
Purposiveness (Bertujuan) Saintifik)

  • Research must have a definitive aim or purpose.

  • Kajian dimulakan dengan matalamat/tujuan yang jelas.


Rigor
Rigor Saintifik)

  • Research must have a good theoretical base and sound methodological design.

  • Rigor connotes carefulness, scrupulousness, and the degree of exactitude in research investigation.

  • Merujuk kepada sifat berhati-hati (carefulness), teliti (scrupulousness) dan ketepatan (exactitude) dalam penyelidikan.


Testability boleh uji
Testability (Boleh Uji) Saintifik)

  • Scientific research must lend itself to testing logically developed hypotheses to determine whether or not the data support the educated conjecture or hypotheses that were developed after the careful study of a research problem.

  • Mengutarakan hipotesis yang boleh diuji melalui kaedah statistik.


Replicability replikability
Replicability (Replikability) Saintifik)

  • The scientific community can place more faith and credence on the findings and conclusion of a research if similar findings emerge on the basis of data collected in other research employing the same methods.

  • The results of the test of hypotheses should be supported again and yet again when the same type of research is repeated in similar circumstances.

  • Sesuatu kajian boleh diulangi dalam situasi atau keadaan lain)


Precision ketepatan and confidence keyakinan
Precision (Ketepatan) and Confidence (Keyakinan) Saintifik)

  • Researchers cannot study the universe of events, objects or people to draw ‘definitive’ conclusions on the basis of the results of data analysis.

  • A sample has to be drawn.

  • Precision refers to the closeness of the findings to ‘reality’ based on the sample.

  • Confidence refers to the probability (95%) that the estimation are correct or true and there is only a 5% chance of being wrong.


Objectivity objektiviti
Objectivity (Objektiviti) Saintifik)

  • The conclusions drawn from the interpretation of the data analysed should be objective.

  • The conclusions must be based on the facts of the findings derived from the actual data and not on the researchers subjective or emotional values.

  • Kesimpulan yang dibuat daripada interpretasi data mestilah objektif i.e. hanya berdasarkan kepada fakta yang diperolehi daripada data dan bukan daripada nilai subjektif dan emosi penyelidik.


Generalizability menyeluruh
Generalizability (Menyeluruh) Saintifik)

  • Refers to the scope of applicability of the research findings in one setting to other settings.

  • The more generalizable the research, the greater is its usefulness and value.

  • Sejauhmana dapatan kajian boleh diperluaskan kepada populasi.


Parsimony hemat
Parsimony (Hemat) Saintifik)

  • Simplicity dalam menjelaskan sesuatu fenomena.

  • Framework kajian mestilah mudah (simple) dan hanya mengandungi variable-variable yang benar-benar mempengaruhi sesuatu masalah.

  • Tidak perlu model yang terlalu komplex dengan variable-variable yang kurang jelas.


Kekangan limitation penyelidikan saintifik dalam pengurusan
Kekangan (Limitation) Penyelidikan Saintifik Dalam Pengurusan

  • Penyelidikan saintifik dalam bidang pengurusan sukar mendapat keputusan yang tepat dan error-free.

  • Ini kerana masalah didalam pengukuran variable kajian serta mendapatkan maklumat subjektif mengenai persepsi, sikap, perasaan, pendapat, emosi, etc.

  • Problem of how to quantify human behavior (eg. loyalty, satisfaction etc.)


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