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# Chapter 5 Quality - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Chapter 5 Quality. Learning Objectives. Be Able to Apply Concepts in Learning Goals Determine Product Reliability Construct and Interpret Control Charts Determine Process Capability Be Able to Use Equations Listed in End of Chapter Equation Summary. Continuous improvement.

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Chapter 5 Quality

• Be Able to Apply Concepts in Learning Goals

• Determine Product Reliability

• Construct and Interpret Control Charts

• Determine Process Capability

• Be Able to Use Equations Listed in End of Chapter Equation Summary

Employee involvement

Customer satisfaction

### TQMWheel

Process design

Continuous improvement

Employee involvement

Customer satisfaction

Problem-solving tools

Benchmarking

### TQMWheel

Customer-DrivenDefinitions of Quality

• Conformance to Specifications

• Value

• Fitness for Use

• Support

• Psychological Impressions

• Prevention Costs

• Appraisal Costs

• Internal Failure Costs

• External Failure Costs

EmployeeInvolvement

• Cultural Change

• Teams

• Individual Development

• Awards and Incentives

Act

Do

Check

Deming

Wheel

### Reliability

Product reliability

rs= (r1)(r2) . . . (rn)

where

rs = reliability of the complete product

n = number of subsystems

rn = reliability of the subsystem or component n

### Reliability

Product reliability

rs= (r1)(r2) . . . (rn)

where

rs = reliability of the complete product

n = number of subsystems

rn = reliability of the subsystem or component n

### Reliability

Product reliability

rs= (r1)(r2) . . . (rn)

where

rs = reliability of the complete product

n = number of subsystems

rn = reliability of the subsystem or component n

rs = (0.99)(0.90)(0.85) = 0.76

### Reliability

Product reliability

rs= (r1)(r2) . . . (rn)

where

rs = reliability of the complete product

n = number of subsystems

rn = reliability of the subsystem or component n

rs = (0.99)(0.90)(0.85) = 0.76

### Reliability

Product reliability

rs= (r1)(r2) . . . (rn)

where

rs = reliability of the complete product

n = number of subsystems

rn = reliability of the subsystem or component n

rs = (0.99)(0.95)(0.90) = 0.85

### Reliability

Product reliability

rs= (r1)(r2) . . . (rn)

where

rs = reliability of the complete product

n = number of subsystems

rn = reliability of the subsystem or component n

rs = (0.99)(0.95)(0.90) = 0.85

### QualityFunctionDeployment

The House of Quality

### QualityFunctionDeployment

Voice of the Customer

### QualityFunctionDeployment

Competitive Analysis

Voice of the Customer

### QualityFunctionDeployment

Voice of the Engineer

Competitive Analysis

Voice of the Customer

### QualityFunctionDeployment

Voice of the Engineer

Competitive Analysis

Voice of the Customer

### QualityFunctionDeployment

Voice of the Engineer

Competitive Analysis

Voice of the Customer

### QualityFunctionDeployment

Voice of the Engineer

Competitive Analysis

Voice of the Customer

Correlations

### QualityFunctionDeployment

Voice of the Engineer

Competitive Analysis

Voice of the Customer

Correlations

### QualityFunctionDeployment

Voice of the Engineer

Competitive Analysis

Voice of the Customer

Correlations

Technical Comparison

### QualityFunctionDeployment

Voice of the Engineer

Competitive Analysis

Voice of the Customer

Correlations

Technical Comparison

• Planning

• Analysis

• Integration

• Action

### Data Analysis Tools

• Checklists

• Histograms and Bar Charts

• Pareto Charts

• Scatter Diagrams

• Cause-and-Effect Diagrams

• Graphs

### Wellington Fiber Board Co.

Tools for Improving Quality

• Step 1—Checklist

• Step 2—Pareto chart

• Step 3—Cause-and-effect diagram

• Step 4—Bar chart

### Wellington Fiber Board Co.

Checklists

Defect type Tally Total

A. Tears in fabric

B. Discolored fabric

C. Broken fiber board

D. Ragged edges

Total

### Wellington Fiber Board Co.

Checklists

Defect type Tally Total

A. Tears in fabric

B. Discolored fabric

C. Broken fiber board /

D. Ragged edges

Total

### Wellington Fiber Board Co.

Checklists

Defect type Tally Total

A. Tears in fabric

B. Discolored fabric

C. Broken fiber board //

D. Ragged edges

Total

### Wellington Fiber Board Co.

Checklists

Defect type Tally Total

A. Tears in fabric /

B. Discolored fabric

C. Broken fiber board //

D. Ragged edges

Total

### Wellington Fiber Board Co.

Checklists

Defect type Tally Total

A. Tears in fabric /

B. Discolored fabric

C. Broken fiber board //

D. Ragged edges /

Total

### Wellington Fiber Board Co.

Checklists

Defect type Tally Total

A. Tears in fabric //// 4

B. Discolored fabric /// 3

C. Broken fiber board //// //// //// ////

//// //// //// / 36

D. Ragged edges //// // 7

Total 50

50

40

30

20

10

0

100

80

60

40

20

0

Cumulative percentage

Number of defects

Defect type

### Wellington Fiber Board Co.

40

30

20

10

0

100

80

60

40

20

0

C

Cumulative percentage

Number of defects

D

A

B

Defect type

### Wellington Fiber Board Co.

Pareto Chart

40

30

20

10

0

100

80

60

40

20

0

C

Cumulative percentage

Number of defects

D

A

B

Defect type

### Wellington Fiber Board Co.

Pareto Chart

Materials

Training

Absenteeism

Communication

Out of specification

Not available

Broken fiber board

Machine maintenance

Machine speed

Wrong setup

Humidity

Schedule changes

Other

Process

### Wellington Fiber Board Co.

Cause-and-Effect Diagram

### Wellington Fiber Board Co.

20

15

10

5

0

Bar Chart

Number of broken fiber boards

First Second Third

Shift

Process

distribution

425 Grams

Sample Means and the

Process Distribution

Distribution of

sample means

425 Grams

Sample Means and the

Process Distribution

Process

distribution

UCL

Nominal

LCL

UCL

Nominal

LCL

1 2 3

Samples

UCL

Nominal

LCL

1 2 3

Samples

UCL

Nominal

LCL

Assignable causes likely

1 2 3

Samples

• Measure the process

• When changes are indicated, find the assignable cause

• Eliminate problems, incorporate improvements

• Repeat the cycle

UCL

Nominal

Variations

LCL

Sample number

UCL

Nominal

Variations

LCL

Sample number

UCL

Nominal

Variations

LCL

Sample number

UCL

Nominal

Variations

LCL

Sample number

UCL

Nominal

Variations

LCL

Sample number

• Control charts for attributes

• Yes/no

• Off/on

• Control charts for variables

• Length

• Width

• Weight

for Variables

West Allis Industries

for Variables

Special Metal Screw

Sample Sample

Number 1 2 3 4

1

2

3

4

5

for Variables

Special Metal Screw

Sample Sample

Number 1 2 3 4

1 0.5014 0.5022 0.5009 0.5027

2 0.5021 0.5041 0.5024 0.5020

3 0.5018 0.5026 0.5035 0.5023

4 0.5008 0.5034 0.5024 0.5015

5 0.5041 0.5056 0.5034 0.5047

for Variables

Special Metal Screw

Sample Sample

Number 1 2 3 4 Rx

1 0.5014 0.5022 0.5009 0.5027

2 0.5021 0.5041 0.5024 0.5020

3 0.5018 0.5026 0.5035 0.5023

4 0.5008 0.5034 0.5024 0.5015

5 0.5041 0.5056 0.5034 0.5039

_

for Variables

Special Metal Screw

Sample Sample

Number 1 2 3 4 Rx

1 0.5014 0.5022 0.5009 0.5027

2 0.5021 0.5041 0.5024 0.5020

3 0.5018 0.5026 0.5035 0.5023

4 0.5008 0.5034 0.5024 0.5015

5 0.5041 0.5056 0.5034 0.5039

_

for Variables

Special Metal Screw

Sample Sample

Number 1 2 3 4 Rx

1 0.5014 0.5022 0.5009 0.5027

2 0.5021 0.5041 0.5024 0.5020

3 0.5018 0.5026 0.5035 0.5023

4 0.5008 0.5034 0.5024 0.5015

5 0.5041 0.5056 0.5034 0.5039

_

0.5027 – 0.5009 = 0.0018

for Variables

Special Metal Screw

Sample Sample

Number 1 2 3 4 Rx

1 0.5014 0.5022 0.5009 0.5027 0.0018

2 0.5021 0.5041 0.5024 0.5020

3 0.5018 0.5026 0.5035 0.5023

4 0.5008 0.5034 0.5024 0.5015

5 0.5041 0.5056 0.5034 0.5039

_

0.5027 – 0.5009 = 0.0018

for Variables

Special Metal Screw

Sample Sample

Number 1 2 3 4 Rx

1 0.5014 0.5022 0.5009 0.5027 0.0018 0.5018

2 0.5021 0.5041 0.5024 0.5020

3 0.5018 0.5026 0.5035 0.5023

4 0.5008 0.5034 0.5024 0.5015

5 0.5041 0.5056 0.5034 0.5039

_

0.5027 – 0.5009 = 0.0018

(0.5014 + 0.5022 +

0.5009 + 0.5027)/4 = 0.5018

for Variables

Special Metal Screw

Sample Sample

Number 1 2 3 4 Rx

1 0.5014 0.5022 0.5009 0.5027 0.0018 0.5018

2 0.5021 0.5041 0.5024 0.5020

3 0.5018 0.5026 0.5035 0.5023

4 0.5008 0.5034 0.5024 0.5015

5 0.5041 0.5056 0.5034 0.5039

_

0.5027 – 0.5009 = 0.0018

(0.5014 + 0.5022 +

0.5009 + 0.5027)/4 = 0.5018

for Variables

Special Metal Screw

Sample Sample

Number 1 2 3 4 Rx

1 0.5014 0.5022 0.5009 0.5027 0.0018 0.5018

2 0.5021 0.5041 0.5024 0.5020 0.0021 0.5027

3 0.5018 0.5026 0.5035 0.5023 0.0017 0.5026

4 0.5008 0.5034 0.5024 0.5015 0.0026 0.5020

5 0.5041 0.5056 0.5034 0.5047 0.0022 0.5045

_

for Variables

Special Metal Screw

Sample Sample

Number 1 2 3 4 Rx

1 0.5014 0.5022 0.5009 0.5027 0.0018 0.5018

2 0.5021 0.5041 0.5024 0.5020 0.0021 0.5027

3 0.5018 0.5026 0.5035 0.5023 0.0017 0.5026

4 0.5008 0.5034 0.5024 0.5015 0.0026 0.5020

5 0.5041 0.5056 0.5034 0.5047 0.0022 0.5045

R = 0.0021

x = 0.5027

_

=

R = 0.0021

UCLR = D4R

LCLR = D3R

Control Charts

for Variables

Control Charts – Special Metal Screw

R-Charts

Factor for UCL Factor for Factor

Size of and LCL for LCL for UCL for

Sample x-Charts R-Charts R-Charts

(n) (A2) (D3) (D4)

2 1.880 0 3.267

3 1.023 0 2.575

4 0.729 0 2.282

5 0.577 0 2.115

6 0.483 0 2.004

7 0.419 0.076 1.924

Control Charts

for Variables

Factor for UCL Factor for Factor

Size of and LCL for LCL for UCL for

Sample x-Charts R-Charts R-Charts

(n) (A2) (D3) (D4)

2 1.880 0 3.267

3 1.023 0 2.575

4 0.729 0 2.282

5 0.577 0 2.115

6 0.483 0 2.004

7 0.419 0.076 1.924

R = 0.0020 D4 = 2.2080

Control Charts

for Variables

Control Charts - Special Metal Screw

R - Charts

R = 0.0021 D4 = 2.282

D3 = 0

UCLR = D4R

LCLR = D3R

Control Charts

for Variables

Control Charts—Special Metal Screw

R-Charts

R = 0.0021 D4= 2.282

D3 = 0

UCLR = D4R

LCLR = D3R

Control Charts

for Variables

Control Charts—Special Metal Screw

R-Charts

UCLR = 2.282 (0.0021) = 0.00479 in.

R = 0.0021 D4= 2.282

D3 = 0

UCLR = D4R

LCLR = D3R

Control Charts

for Variables

Control Charts—Special Metal Screw

R-Charts

UCLR = 2.282 (0.0021) = 0.00479 in.

LCLR = 0 (0.0021) = 0 in.

R = 0.0021 D4= 2.282

D3 = 0

UCLR = D4R

LCLR = D3R

Control Charts

for Variables

Control Charts—Special Metal Screw

R-Charts

UCLR = 2.282 (0.0021) = 0.00479 in.

LCLR = 0 (0.0021) = 0 in.

UCLR = 0.00479

0.005 -

0.0045 -

0.004 -

0.0035 -

0.003 -

0.0025 -

0.002 -

0.0015 -

0.001 -

0.0005 -

0 -

R = 0.0021

Range

LCLR = 0

| | | | | | | |

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Sample Number

Range Chart - Special Metal Screw

X-Charts

R = 0.0021

x = 0.5027

=

=

UCLx = x + A2R

LCLx = x–A2R

=

Control Charts

for Variables

Control Charts—Special Metal Screw

Factor for UCL Factor for Factor

Size of and LCL for LCL for UCL for

Sample x-Charts R-Charts R-Charts

(n) (A2) (D3) (D4)

2 1.880 0 3.267

3 1.023 0 2.575

4 0.729 0 2.282

5 0.577 0 2.115

6 0.483 0 2.004

7 0.419 0.076 1.924

x - Charts

R = 0.0020

x = 0.5025

UCLx = x + A2R

LCLx = x - A2R

Control Charts

for Variables

Control Charts - Special Metal Screw

x- Charts

R = 0.0021 A2 = 0.729

x = 0.5027

=

=

UCLx = x + A2R

LCLx = x–A2R

=

Control Charts

for Variables

Control Charts—Special Metal Screw

x- Charts

R = 0.0021 A2 = 0.729

x = 0.5027

=

=

UCLx = x + A2R

LCLx = x–A2R

=

UCLx = 0.5027 + 0.729 (0.0021) = 0.5042 in.

Control Charts

for Variables

Control Charts—Special Metal Screw

x- Charts

R = 0.0021 A2 = 0.729

x = 0.5027

=

=

UCLx = x + A2R

LCLx = x–A2R

=

UCLx = 0.5027 + 0.729 (0.0021) = 0.5042 in.

LCLx = 0.5027 – 0.729 (0.0021) = 0.5012 in.

Control Charts

for Variables

Control Charts—Special Metal Screw

0.505 -

0.5045 -

0.504 -

0.5035 -

0.503 -

0.5025 -

0.502 -

0.5015 -

0.501 -

UCLX = 0.5042

=

X = 0.5027

Average

LCLX = 0.5012

| | | | | | | |

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Sample Number

x-Chart—Special Metal Screw

0.505 -

0.5045 -

0.504 -

0.5035 -

0.503 -

0.5025 -

0.502 -

0.5015 -

0.501 -

UCLX = 0.5042

=

X = 0.5027

Average

LCLX = 0.5012

| | | | | | | |

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Sample Number

x-Chart— Special Metal Screw

0.505 -

0.5045 -

0.504 -

0.5035 -

0.503 -

0.5025 -

0.502 -

0.5015 -

0.501 -

UCLX = 0.5042

=

X = 0.5027

Average

• Measure the process

• Find the assignable cause

• Eliminate the problem

• Repeat the cycle

LCLX = 0.5012

| | | | | | | |

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Sample Number

x-Chart—Special Metal Screw

• p-chart

• Used for controlling the proportion of defectives generated by a process

• c-chart

• Used for controlling the number of defects when more than one defect can be present in a particular product or service

Nominal

value

Process distribution

Lower

specification

Upper

specification

Hours

800

1000

1200

(a) Process is capable

Nominal

value

Process distribution

Lower

specification

Upper

specification

Hours

800

1000

1200

(b) Process is not capable

Nominal value

Two sigma

Lower

specification

Upper

specification

Mean

Nominal value

Four sigma

Two sigma

Lower

specification

Upper

specification

Mean

Nominal value

Six sigma

Four sigma

Two sigma

Lower

specification

Upper

specification

Mean

9000

ISO

14000

• Category 2—Strategic Planning 85 points

• Category 3—Customer and Market Focus 85 points

• Category 4—Information and Analysis 90 points

• Category 5—Human Resource Focus 85 points

• Category 6—Process Management 85 points

• Category 7—Business Results 450 points