Basic Values in Europe Shalom Schwartz The Hebrew University of Jerusalem - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Basic Values in Europe Shalom Schwartz The Hebrew University of Jerusalem

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  1. Basic Values in EuropeShalom SchwartzThe Hebrew University of Jerusalem ESS Launch Conference Brussels November 25, 2003

  2. equality loyalty wealth ambition obedience pleasure creativity humility social order an exciting life As a guiding principle in your life, how important is:

  3. What are basic values? Basic values are beliefs about desirable goals in life. • Values are intrinsically positive (unlike goals) • Values apply across situations--all (e.g., honesty, security, freedom) apply at work, in the family, and with friends • People’s values form a fairly stable hierarchy of relative importance (success>hedonism>security) • Relative importance of values is crucial to decisions Take a new job and move family?(achievement & stimulation vs. security & benevolence)

  4. Why are values important? Functions of values • motivate choice of behavior--what we do • justify past behavior--why we do it • standards to evaluate people & events-- who and what we like, underlie our attitudes • direct attention and perception--what wenotice

  5. Inferring Basic Values in Surveys • Surveys typically measure values with attitude questions in specific life domains (religion, morality, politics, work, etc.). • Infer underlying basic value orientations from responses to these specific questions (e.g., materialism, individualism) • But meanings of responses depend on specific social and economic conditions (e.g., meaning of “give people more say in government” depends on whether one favors or opposes current government policies)

  6. Empirical Tests of Theory • 75,000 + respondents, varied samples in 68 countries • Instrument lists 57 abstract value items • “How important is each item as a guiding principle in your life?”

  7. Near Universal Content & Structure • Each of 10 values distinguished in vast majority of countries • Comprehensive: Added items identified no other values • Oppositions present in virtually all countries Openness vs. Conservation Self-Enhancement vs. Self Transcendence • 10 values ordered around circle as theorized in vast majority of countries

  8. voting for conservative vs liberal parties adopting technological innovations environmentally friendly attitudes, activities religiosity [6 monotheistic religions] SE/PO vs UN/SD ST/SD vs SE/TR/CO UN/SD vs PO/AC TR/CO vs HE/ST Some Correlates of Value PrioritiesReplicated across Countries UNiversalism Self-Direction BEnevolence STimulation Hedonism TRadition AChievement COnformity SEcurity POwer

  9. ESS Basic Values Instrument • Need easy instrument for heterogeneous samples • 21 items, each portraying a person in terms of one value (goal) that is important to him/her It's very important to him to help the people around him. He wants to care for their well-being. (BE) • Respondent rates how similar that person is to me • Indirectly reveals what values are more or less important to self

  10. ESS Basic Values Exemplary Items and Response Scale How much like you is this person?

  11. Value Structures in Europe: Findings Across Europe, people’s values are organized in the same way as postulated by theory • Oppositions (openness vs. conservation; self-enhancement vs. self-transcendence) present in all countries • Exactly or very near theorized order of 10 values in every country • In 13 countries, every item in expected value region; in two countries, one item near region • This signifies relative equivalence of value meanings across countries—now compare importance

  12. Opposition to Outgroup ImmigrationPredictors in 10 West European Countries UniversalismValues -.15 Security Values .11 Education Years -.11 R2=.085 .07 Religiosity .05 Allow no immi-grants Conformity Values Tradition Values .04 Native Born .04 .04 Gender Male -.03 Household Income -.03 Benevolence Values Opposition:allow people of a different race or ethnic group from most, residualized on allow same(1-4 scale). All betas p<.001. Age, unemployment, rural-urban do not predict significantly.

  13. Perceived Consequences of ImmigrationPredictors in 10 West European Countries Universalism Values .20 Education Years .17 Native Born R2=.173 -.14 -.11 Security Values .07 Index of 6 Positive Effects Household Income Benevolence Values .06 Religiosity -.05 -.05 Tradition Values .04 Rural .03 -.03 Conformity Values Gender M Consequences:increase jobs, pay more taxes than services used, improve economy, enrich culture, country better place to live, reduce crime problem: alpha at least .80 in all countries. All betas p<.001; Age & Unemployment do not predict significantly

  14. Value Structures in Europe: Test • MDS analysis in each country • Arranges items in space to show which ones are similar and different—based on correlations • Items representing each value should form a distinct region • Value regions should array in space around circle as in theory

  15. Self-Direction Universalism HighestLowest CH, SE PL, GR FI, CH GR, IL Benevolence Stimulation SE, CH HU, SL GB, FI HU, CZ Tradition Hedonism GR, PT FI, NL CH, HU CZ, PL Conformity Achievement CZ PL PT, CH IL, SL FI, CZ Security Power CZ, HU NO, SE GR, IL CH, FI

  16. Countries Ordered on Value Priorities 1

  17. Countries Ordered on Value Priorities 2

  18. Countries Ordered on Value Priorities 3

  19. Comments on Value Circle 1 • Aim to derive set of universally recognized values • Content of values derives from the basic goals that people in all societies must pursue • People must communicate with each other to gain cooperation in pursuing their goals needs of biological organism--e.g. hedonism demands of social interaction--e.g. achievement requirements for group survival--e.g. security

  20. Comments on Value Circle 2 Define each value in turn, noting exemplary value items Openness to Change SELF‑DIRECTION: Independent thought and action‑choosing, creating, exploring. (Creativity, Freedom, Independent, Curious...) STIMULATION: Excitement, novelty, and challenge in life. (Daring, a Varied Life, an Exciting Life) Conservation SECURITY: Safety, harmony and stability of society, of relationships, and of self. (Family Security, National Security, Social Order, Clean...) CONFORMITY: Restraint of actions, inclinations, and impulses likely to upset or harm others and violate social expectations or norms. (Politeness, Obedient, Honoring Parents and Elders...) TRADITION: Respect, commitment and acceptance of the customs and ideas that traditional culture or religion provide the self. (Humble, Devout, Respect for Tradition...) Self-Enhancement POWER: Social status and prestige, control or dominance over people and resources. (Social Power, Authority, Wealth...) ACHIEVEMENT: Personal success through demonstrating competence according to social standards. (Successful, Ambitious, Influential...) Self-Transcendence UNIVERSALISM: Understanding, appreciation, tolerance and protection for the welfare of all people and for nature. (Broadminded, Social Justice, Equality, Protecting the Environment) BENEVOLENCE: Preservation and enhancement of the welfare of people with whom one is in frequent personal contact. (Helpful, Honest, Forgiving...) HEDONISM: Pleasure and sensuous gratification for oneself. (Pleasure, Enjoying Life)

  21. Comments on Value Circle 3 • Structure reflects consequences of acting on various values • Adjacent values share motivation & are compatible (conformity & security) (power & achievement) • Distant values have opposing motivations, conflict (power vs. benevolence) (hedonism & tradition) • Values forma motivational continuum[colors not categorical] • Theory aspires to comprehensive coverage of major motivationally distinct types of values

  22. Linking Value Priorities & Other Variables • Circular structure and motivational continuum imply • all 10 values associate systematically with any other variable • value with most positive association is usually opposite value with most negative association SD UN ST BE TR HE CO AC PO SE