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How are Schools Governed, Influenced, and Financed?. Chapter 11. Who legally governs public education?. Responsibility for public schools is a state function-Tenth Amendment to the constitution State versus local control Governors play leadership role.

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Who legally governs public education
Who legally governs public education?

  • Responsibility for public schools is a state function-Tenth Amendment to the constitution

  • State versus local control

  • Governors play leadership role

Organizational structure of a typical state school system
Organizational Structure of a typical state school system

State Constitution

State Legislature


State Courts

State Board of Education

State Superintendent

(Chief State School Officer)

State Department of Education

Organizational structure continued
Organizational Structure-continued

Local School Districts

Local Superintendents

Local School Principals



Mark twain
Mark Twain

In the first place, God made idiots.

That was for practice.

Then he made school boards.

School boards
School Boards

  • School boards lack diversity

  • Elected by popular vote-96% of states

  • 4% of school boards are appointed by mayor of city council

  • Majority are male, white, between ages 41 and 60

  • Demographic characteristics have changed little

School boards1
School Boards

  • Proportion of women has increased

  • 12% to 39% increase since 1972

  • Representation of minorities is small

  • 83% have incomes over $50,000

  • 66% have bachelor’s degrees

  • Most are professionals, managers, business owners

  • Conservative

Atypical aspects of school boards
Atypical aspects of school boards

  • Not typical of the public they serve

  • Influences on values and decisions

    Can you think of any ways in which this atypical aspect might influence their values and decisions?

Who influences american public education
Who Influences American Public Education

  • Professional Education Organizations

  • Site based decision making

  • Parents

  • PTA

  • PTO

  • Business

Neil postman
Neil Postman

The classroom is … a place in which the claims of various political, social, and economic interests are negotiated. The classroom is both a symbol and a product of deadly serious cultural bargaining.

High stakes standardized testing
High Stakes Standardized Testing

NCLB-the 2001 reauthorization required states to test students each year between grades 3 and 8 and once in high school if they wish to receive federal funds.

45 states require teachers to pass a state-prescribed, test before entering a teacher education program and before being licensed to teach

How are schools financed
How are schools financed?

  • Locally raised revenues

  • State aid

  • Federal aid

  • Miscellaneous revenues

School spending
School Spending

  • Nationwide average $8,554 per pupil

  • District of Columbia is $15,073 per pupil

  • Utah is $5,245 per pupil


School finance reform and the courts
School Finance Reform and the Courts

  • Serrano v. Priest

  • Rodriguez case

  • Unequal funding

  • Equality as state concern

  • Pressures for equality

Federal funding
Federal Funding

  • Categorical grants

  • Block grants

  • NCLB

Nclb act key provisions
NCLB Act Key Provisions

  • Annual testing

  • Academic improvement

  • Teacher and Paraprofessional qualifications

    Concerns about NCLB

    • Students at risk

    • Special Education

    • State standards lack uniformity

Compensatory education
Compensatory Education

  • An approach to creating more equal educational opportunities for disadvantaged children

  • Title I

    1. deliver federal funds to local school districts and schools for education of students from low-income families

    2. supplement educational services provided to low-achieving students

Compensatory education cont
Compensatory Education-cont.

  • Preventive approaches-Head Start

  • Basic skill instruction

  • Tutoring

  • Remediation in academic areas

  • Drop out programs

  • Job training

  • Adult literacy instruction

  • Success for All program-

Web resources
Web Resources