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Wireless Networking IEEE 802.11 Standards Module-03B. Jerry Bernardini Community College of Rhode Island . Presentation Reference Material. CWNA Certified Wireless Network Administration Official Study Guide (PWO-104), David Coleman, David Westcott, 2009, Chapter-5

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wireless networking ieee 802 11 standards module 03b

Wireless NetworkingIEEE 802.11 StandardsModule-03B

Jerry Bernardini

Community College of Rhode Island

Wireless Networking J. Bernardini

presentation reference material
Presentation Reference Material
  • CWNA Certified Wireless Network Administration Official Study Guide

(PWO-104), David Coleman, David Westcott, 2009, Chapter-5

  • http://www.ieee802.org/11/
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IEEE_802.11

Wireless Networking J. Bernardini

ieee 802 11 standards
IEEE 802.11 Standards
  • Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) a professional society activity to establish standards
  • Hierarchical documents using clauses and sub-clauses
  • Task Groups (TGb, TGa, …) are used to study topics
  • Other Task Groups include: Ethernet, 802.3, 802.5, 802.15
  • Task Groups designated by letters; a, b, g, n …
  • Defines wireless technology at Physical (PHY) and MAC sub- layer of Data link layer
  • Upper layer not addressed except of QoS

Wireless Networking J. Bernardini

802 11 1997 802 11 legacy
802.11-1997 (802.11 legacy)
  • Original version of the standard IEEE 802.11, released in June1997 and clarified in 1999
  • ISM 2.4 GHz. band
  • Forward correcting codes code.
  • Infrared operating at 1 Mbps
  • Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS); at 1, 2 Mbps
  • Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS); at 1, 2 Mbps
  • Legacy 802.11 with direct-sequence spread spectrum was rapidly supplanted and popularized by 802.11b.
  • Standard revised in 1999, 2003, 2007

Wireless Networking J. Bernardini

ieee 802 11 b
IEEE 802.11 b
  • Defined as High-Rate DSS (HR-DSS) and Clause 18 devices
  • Uses 2.4 GHz ISM band
  • Support data rates of 1, 2, 5.5, 11 Mbps
  • Phase modulation and encoding spread spectrum
  • Complementary Code Keying (CCK) and Barker Coding
  • Manufacture dependent backward compatibility
  • Interference from other products operating in the 2.4 GHz band; microwave ovens, Bluetooth devices, baby monitors and cordless telephones

Wireless Networking J. Bernardini

ieee 802 11 a
IEEE 802.11 a
  • IEEE standard in 1999 (same year as 802.11b)
  • Uses UNII 5 GHz band – less crowded that 2.4 GHz band
  • Updated in Clause 17 802.11-2007
  • Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) used instead of DSSS
  • Supports 6, 9,12, 18, 24, 36, 54 Mbps
  • Not all vendors support all rates
  • Not compatible with 802.11b,802.11g and legacy 802.11
  • Simultaneous operation with 802.11b,802.11g
  • Originally not adapted because of high frequency component costs

Wireless Networking J. Bernardini

ieee 802 11 g
IEEE 802.11 g
  • 2003 standard (Clause 19) for 2.4 GHz band
  • Referred to as Extended Rate Physical (ERP)
  • OFDM based and the same as 802.11a
  • Backward compatibility with 802.11b (ERP-DSSS/CCK)
  • Supports 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, 4 Mbps
  • Rapidly adopted by consumers because of speed ,
  • Dual-band 802.11a/b, dual-band/tri-mode and b/g in a single adapter card and AP are available.
  • Like 802.11b, 802.11g devices suffer interference from other 2.4 GHz products
  • Equipment must support three modes and protection mechanism:
    • B-only mode
    • G-only mode
    • B/G-mode

Wireless Networking J. Bernardini

ieee 802 11 n
IEEE 802.11 n
  • Started in 2004, final ratification October 2009 (textbook still lists as draft)
  • Defined as High Throughput (HT) ( Clause 20)
  • Major goal: increase throughput over 802.11a/b/g
  • Backward compatible to 802.11a/b/g
  • Supports speeds over 100 Mbps
  • Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) to compensate for multipath
  • Requires multiple antennas and dual radios for full standard
  • Many other newer features to be covered later
  • Even before final ratification WiFi Alliance certified 802.11n draft 2
  • Must support multiple modes and protection mechanism:
    • N-only mode (Greenfield mode)
    • A-only mode
    • B/G-mode

Wireless Networking J. Bernardini

ieee 802 11 d
IEEE 802.11 d
  • 2001 standard International use and (country-to-country) roaming extensions
  • Defines differences between countries country codes , frames and beacons
  • Configuration parameters for FHSS (legacy use)
  • Details in 802.11-2007 clause 9.8

Wireless Networking J. Bernardini

ieee 802 11 f
IEEE 802.11 F
  • An attempt to standardize wireless roaming
  • Vendors did not adapt the recommendations uniformly
  • Roaming will probably not work between vendor
  • Two things must happen for roaming
    • New AP must inform original AP a station is associating with the new AP and want buffered packets
    • Original AP must forward buffered packets to new AP
  • 802.11F never ratified and withdrawn in February 2006
  • Light AP’s and WLAN controller minimize the need for inter-vendor roaming standard
  • Recommend practice is to use Inter-Access Point Protocol (IAPP)

Wireless Networking J. Bernardini

ieee 802 11 h
IEEE 802.11 h
  • Standard to define mechanism for Dynamic Frequency Selection (DFS)
  • Standard to define mechanism for Transmit Power Control (TPC)
  • Radar detection and WLAN control
  • Increased frequency space in UNII-2 band
  • Amendent now in 11.8 and 11.9 of 802.11-2007

Wireless Networking J. Bernardini

ieee 802 11 i
IEEE 802.11 i
  • 802.11 from 1997 to 2004 only support 64-bit Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) encryption
  • WEP was cracked in 2003- no long recommended
  • 802.11i improves wireless security
  • Stronger encryption methods
  • Counter Mode with Cipher Block Chaining Message Authentication Code Protocol (CCMP) and Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)
  • Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP)
  • RC-4 Stream cipher
  • Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP)
  • WiFi Protection Access 2 (WAP2)
  • Wireless Security is important - CWSP

Wireless Networking J. Bernardini

ieee 802 11 j
IEEE 802.11 j
  • Standard to gain Japanese regulatory approval for MAC and 802.11a PHY improvements
  • Japan 802.11a radio cards to operate at 5.15 to 5.25 GHz and 4.9 to 5.091 GHz
  • Option for Japan to operate OFDM with 10 MHz spacing, increasing number of bandwidth rates

Wireless Networking J. Bernardini

ieee 802 11 e
IEEE 802.11 e
  • Amendment for Quality of Service (QoS)
  • Voice and Video are not latency and jitter tolerant
  • Voice over IP (VoWIP) and VoWiFi
  • Defines layer two MAC methods to meet QoS
  • Distributed Coordination Function (DCF)– random method to determine which application runs first
  • Point Coordination Function (PCF) –Polls clients for appilcation priority
  • Hybrid Coordination Function Control Channel Access (HCCA)- AP is given ability to set station priority
  • Wi-Fi Alliance Wi-Fi Multimedia (WMM)

Wireless Networking J. Bernardini

ieee 802 11 k
IEEE 802.11 k

Wireless Networking J. Bernardini

ieee 802 11 r
IEEE 802.11 r

Wireless Networking J. Bernardini

ieee 802 11 m
IEEE 802.11 m

Wireless Networking J. Bernardini

ieee 802 11 p
IEEE 802.11 p

Wireless Networking J. Bernardini

ieee 802 11 s
IEEE 802.11 s

Wireless Networking J. Bernardini

ieee 802 11 t
IEEE 802.11 T

Wireless Networking J. Bernardini

ieee 802 11 u
IEEE 802.11 u

Wireless Networking J. Bernardini

ieee 802 11 v
IEEE 802.11 v

Wireless Networking J. Bernardini

ieee 802 11 w
IEEE 802.11 w

Wireless Networking J. Bernardini

ieee 802 11 y
IEEE 802.11 y

Wireless Networking J. Bernardini

ieee 802 11 z
IEEE 802.11 z

Wireless Networking J. Bernardini

ieee 802 11 aa
IEEE 802.11 aa

Wireless Networking J. Bernardini