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Sensory, Motor, & Integrative System. Ch 16. Sensation: The conscious or subconscious awareness of external or internal stimuli. Perception: The conscious awareness and the interpretation of meaning of sensations. Exteroceptors vs Interoceptors. General Senses vs. Special Senses. Taste

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Presentation Transcript
slide2

Sensation:

  • The conscious or subconscious awareness of external or internal stimuli.
  • Perception:
  • The conscious awareness and the interpretation of meaning of sensations.
slide3

Exteroceptors

vs

Interoceptors

slide4

General Sensesvs. Special Senses

Taste

Smell

Vision

Hearing

Balance

Pain

Temperature

Light touch

Pressure

Sense of body and limb position

slide5

Sensory Receptors

  • Mechanoreceptors
  • Thermoreceptors
  • Photoreceptors
  • Chemoreceptors
  • Nociceptors
  • Osmoreceptors
slide6

General Senses

Unencapsulated

Nerve Endings

Encapsulated Nerve

Endings

vs

Naked nerve endings surrounded

by one or more layers

Free nerve endings

Pacinian corpuscle

skin, bones, internal organs, joints

Deeper tissue, muscles

slide7

Unencapsulated Nerve Endings

Free Nerve Endings- Pain & Temperature

Merkel’s Discs - Light Touch & Pressure

Root Hair Plexuses - Light Touch

pain, light touch, and temperature

slide8

Encapsulated Nerve Endings

Pacinian Corpuscles - Deep Pressure

Meissner’s Corpuscles - Discriminative Touch in Hairless Skin Areas

Krause’s End-Bulbs - Discriminative Touch in Mucous Membranes

Ruffini’s Corpuscles - Deep Pressure & Stretch (Proprioception)

slide9

The Epidermis

Merkel Cells- slow mechanoreceptors (basal layer)

slide10

Skin Receptors

free nerve endings

Merkel disc

Meissner’s corpuscles

Ruffini corpuscle

root hair plexus

Pacinian corpuscles

slide11

Encapsulated Nerve Endings

Muscle Spindles - Skeletal Muscle Stretching (Proprioception)

Golgi Tendon Organs - Tendon Stretching (Proprioception)

slide12

Muscle Spindle

& Tendon Organ

slide13

Pain- protective function

Somatic Pain-results from injuries to skin, muscle, joints, tendon vs.Visceral Pain- pain in body organs

slide23

Ascending Spinal Cord Tract

Conducts sensory impulses upward through 3 successive chains of neurons

  • 1st order neuron-cutaneous receptors of skin and proprioceptors  spinal cord or brain stem
  • 2nd order neuron- to thalamus or cerebellum
  • 3rd order neuron- to somatosensory cortex of cerebrum
slide25

Descending Spinal Cord Tract

Descending tract delivers impulses efferently from brain to spinal cord

  • Direct pathway- regulates fine and fast movements
  • Indirect pathway- maintains balance by varying postural muscle tone
importance of sleep
Importance of Sleep
  • Slow-wave sleep (NREM stages 3 and 4) is presumed to be the restorative stage
  • People deprived of REM sleep become moody and depressed
  • REM sleep may be a reverse learning process where superfluous information is purged from the brain
  • Daily sleep requirements decline with age
  • Stage 4 sleep declines steadily and may disappear after age 60
sleep disorders
Sleep Disorders
  • Narcolepsy
    • Lapsing abruptly into sleep from the awake state
  • Insomnia
    • Chronic inability to obtain the amount or quality of sleep needed
  • Sleep apnea
    • Temporary cessation of breathing during sleep
slide32

Learning & Memory

Stimulus

Sensory organs

perception

Sensory Memory

(millisecond-1)

attention

Short-Term Memory

Working Memory

(< 1 minute)

forgetting

repetition

Long-Term Memory

( days, months, years)

slide33

Learning & Memory

  • Sensory Memory:
  • A sensory memory exists for each sensory channel:
  • iconic memory for visual stimuli
  • echoic memory for aural stimuli
  • haptic memory for touch
  • Information sensory memory short-term memory by attention, thereby filtering the stimuli to only those which are of interest at a given time.
slide34

Learning & Memory

  • Short-term Memory:
  • acts as a scratch-pad for temporary recall of the information under process
  • can contain at any one time seven, plus or minus two, "chunks" of information
  • lasts around twenty seconds.
slide36

Short-term Memory Quiz (30 sec)

brainflagtrialpartnerhouselifechair

eggsdrawingrockapplefocusmissionfavorice

slide37

Learning & Memory

  • Long-term Memory:
  • intended for storage of information over a long time.
  • Short-termlong-term (rehearsal)
  • Little decay
    • Storage
    • Deletion- decay and interference
    • Retrieval-recall and recognition
slide38

Learning & Memory

  • Long-term Memory:
  • Why we forget:
  • fading (trace decay) over time
  • interference (overlaying new information over the old)
  • lack of retrieval cues.
slide39

Learning & Memory

  • Encoding in Long-term Memory:
  • Organizing
  • Practicing
  • Spacing
  • Making meaning
  • Emotionally engaging
slide40

INQUIRY

  • Where are merkel cells located?
  • What do proprioceptors sense?
  • What type of stimulus triggers a response in nociceptors?
  • How much information can short term memory hold at any one time?
  • Where are second order neurons located?
  • What is phantom limb pain?
  • Give ways to store info in long-term memory.