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NCLB AND VALUE-ADDED APPROACHES ECS State Leader Forum on Educational Accountability June 4, 2004 Stanley Rabinowitz,

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NCLB AND VALUE-ADDED APPROACHES ECS State Leader Forum on Educational Accountability June 4, 2004 Stanley Rabinowitz, Ph.D. WestEd [email protected] GUIDING QUESTIONS. What are the goals/assumptions/values of Value-Added accountability models?

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NCLB ANDVALUE-ADDED APPROACHESECS State Leader Forum on Educational Accountability June 4, 2004Stanley Rabinowitz, [email protected]
guiding questions
GUIDING QUESTIONS
  • What are the goals/assumptions/values of Value-Added accountability models?
  • What are the pros and cons of Value-Added accountability models?
  • What are the requirements of Value-Added accountability models (data, technical, political)?
  • Are there alternatives that provide “similar” information?
accountability models
ACCOUNTABILITY MODELS
  • Status
  • Cohort
  • Same students (unmatched)
  • Same students (matched)—“Value Added”

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  • All models are defensible (assumptions, values)
  • All models can be interpreted as “growth”
accountability models cont
ACCOUNTABILITY MODELS (cont.)
  • Multiple (Simultaneous) Models

- two tier (funnel into state system)

- federal and state system (side-by-side)

- combine status and growth

- formal and informal systems (program improvement)

  • Advantages of multiple systems

- differing assumptions may be appropriate for different audiences and purposes

- approval

  • Disadvantages of multiple systems

- need to administer multiple systems

- interpret/explain differing results

challenges of a value added system
CHALLENGES OF A VALUE-ADDED SYSTEM
  • Values
  • Assessment

- content

- technical

  • Data systems
  • Political
challenges of a value added system values
CHALLENGES OF A VALUE-ADDED SYSTEM: VALUES
  • Concept of “one-year’s growth” (across grades, content areas, students)
  • Individual student growth most important measure of school effectiveness (student by student)
  • Classroom/teacher effect most important factor in student success (vs. school, district, home, community)
  • Student test scores are a proxy for effective teaching
  • Changes in standardized test scores are what is valued
challenges of a value added system assessment
CHALLENGES OF A VALUE-ADDED SYSTEM: ASSESSMENT
  • Test questions of varying difficulty in order to adequately discriminate among the range of achievers typically found in a classroom, school, district, state
  • Sufficient validity and reliability of the underlying instrument(s) (reliability of difference scores)
  • A set of scaled tests, vertically equated, aligned to the curriculum
  • NRT vs. CRT
challenges of a value added system data systems
CHALLENGES OF A VALUE-ADDED SYSTEM: DATA SYSTEMS
  • Longitudinally merged student data base (unique student identifiers)
  • Student data need to be traceable back to the focus of accountability (teacher, classroom, school, district…)
  • Data to be controlled for other factors (e.g., socioeconomic indicators, disabilities)
  • Unmatched students?
  • Mobility across state and across schools?
  • Multiple teachers?
challenges of a value added system political
CHALLENGES OF A VALUE-ADDED SYSTEM: POLITICAL
  • NCLB status
  • Black box vs. transparency of system
  • Specific attribution of blame/responsibility
  • Expected opposition
  • Large year-to-year swings in value-added scores that administrators could not explain
  • Assumption that all learning takes place in the classroom, although the model "has not provided adequate evidence to support this contention"
pseudo value added model
PSEUDO VALUE-ADDED MODEL
  • Fully aligned content standards
  • Fully aligned performance standards
  • Sufficient variability within performance categories (e.g., break out basic into low, medium, high basic)
  • Accountability based on growth of individual students or groups (within and across categories)
  • Assign point values for different types of growth

- value of reaching proficient

- value at other points (advanced, at least basic)

- value of lowest category (0?)

  • Focus attention at performance labels, especially Proficient
  • Lower technical requirements
  • Easier political discussion
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