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Desublimation

Desublimation

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Desublimation

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  1. Freezing or Solidification Evaporation Melting or Liquefaction Condensation Desublimation Sublimation

  2. Physical properties....

  3. Physical Properties Physical properties are characteristics of matter 
that can be measured and observed. Properties help identify a substance and help 
determine the uses of a material.

  4. Properties of liquids: Viscosity is a measurement of resistance to flowing.

  5. Viscosity is a measure of the resistance of a fluid to flow. In everyday terms (and for 
fluids only), viscosity is 
"thickness" or "internal 
friction". Thus, water is "thin", 
having a lower viscosity, 
while honey is "thick", 
having a higher viscosity. Put simply, the less viscous the fluid is, the greater its ease of movement (fluidity).

  6. The substance above has lower viscosity than the substance below.

  7. Surface tension is the tendency of a liquid to form a skin at the surface.

  8. Cohesion is the attraction between particles of the same 
substance. Cohesion is what 
causes surface tension. Adhesion is similar to cohesion, but it is the attraction between particles 
of different substances.

  9. Properties of solids: Malleable is the ability to be shaped. Elasticity is the amount of "stretch" an item has. Brittleness is how easily something will break when being shaped.

  10. Hardness is the resistance to being 
scratched. Tensile strength describes how well a solid resists breaking under tension 
forces (pulling forces). Conductivity is the ability to conduct electricity.

  11. Luster-the state or quality of shining by reflecting 
light; glitter, sparkle, sheen, 
or gloss, dull, flat. Ductile-capable of being drawn out into wire or threads capable 
of being hammered out thin, as 
certain metals; malleable.

  12. Translucent Allowing light, but not detailed images, to pass through; semitransparent. Opaque Not transparent or translucent; impenetrable to light; not allowing light to pass through.

  13. Physical properties of matter 
often vary with three things: temperature, pressure and state.

  14. Chemical vs. Physical Properties Chemical properties are properties of an 
element or compound in chemical reactions. For 
example, the fact that sodium reacts with water is a chemical property. Physical properties are properties of an element or compound that can be observed without a 
chemical reaction of the substance. A substance's 
color and density are physical properties.

  15. Gluep Background info..... Density is a measure of how closely the 
particles of a substance are packed into a 
given space. Density is found by measuring mass and 
volume and then dividing the mass by the 
volume. The formula for density is: D = M/V D stands for density, M stands for mass, 
and V stands for volume.

  16. What is the density of a rock that has a mass of 
32.5 g and a volume of 12.8 mL? Use the 3-step method to solve this problem: 1) Write the formula.  D = M/V 2) Plug in the numbers and units. 3) Complete the calculation and show the correct unit for density.

  17. What is the density of a rock that has a mass of 
32.5 g and a volume of 12.8 mL?

  18. How do you determine volume?

  19. GLUEP LAB Physical properties of matter are characteristics that 
can be measured and observed, without changing the make-
up of the substance. Examples of measurable properties: Examples of observable properties: On the other hand, chemical properties describe the way a material will behave chemically. Will it react slowly with 
oxygen, decompose in light, combine explosively with 
sodium, etc.?

  20. MATERIALS: Triple-beam balance Food coloring  Graduated cylinder Borax  Two beakers White glue   Stick for stirring PROCEDURE: 1. Find the mass of the small beaker (answer = ____________). 
2. Add 3.7 g to that mass (answer = ____________) and adjust the pointers on the balance to this new number. Carefully add 
Borax to the beaker until it balances out again. 3. Add 50 ml of water to the Borax in the beaker. Stir to mix until all or most of the Borax is dissolved. 4. In the larger beaker, measure 25 ml of glue. 5. Measure and add 25 ml of water to the glue and mix well. 6. Add 2 drops of food coloring to the glue mixture and stir. 7. Pour the Borax solution into the glue mixture and stir. 8. Drain the extra liquid down the sink drain. Be careful not to 
lose the new material you have just made. 9. Knead the remaining material in your hands until it firms 
like putty. 10. Clean your beakers, then place the gluep in one. Observe.

  21. Do not remove ANY materials from this 
classroom without permission. This includes the Gluep you made. (Sorry!)

  22. In detail, describe the PHYSICAL PROPERTIES of the gluep you made. Include the color, odor, texture, 
viscosity (compared to water), volume, and mass.
____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
Based on your observations, does gluep behave more 
like a solid, liquid, or gas? Defend your answer 
______________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ Thoroughly clean all lab equipment, including beakers, 
sinks, counters, etc. Return all lab supplies where they 
belong. DO NOT TAKE ANY GLUEP OUT OF THE CLASSROOM!

  23. In detail, describe the PHYSICAL PROPERTIES of the gluep you made. Include the color, odor, texture, 
viscosity (compared to water), volume, and mass.
____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
Based on your observations, does gluep behave more 
like a solid, liquid, or gas? Defend your answer . Thoroughly clean all lab equipment, including beakers, 
sinks, counters, etc. Return all lab supplies where they 
belong. DO NOT TAKE ANY GLUEP OUT OF THE CLASSROOM! No, it's neither solid nor liquid, it's a hydrocolloidal gel - a "colloid". Solids are held in suspension within a liquid by molecular action.

  24. Conservation Speaking Contest This year the speaking contest will be held on Tuesday January 21, 2014 at Pittsville High School in Pittsville, WI. The contest starts at 6:00pm. Students can pick a topic that deals with conservation and deliver a speech. Gift cards and trophies will be awarded to the top speeches. Top speeches will move on to area level, then state. Entry forms need to be mailed by Friday January 17, 2014.

  25. Robotic snow shoveler

  26. Follow-up questions: What other materials have you seen that have similar 
properties as gluep? How would you rate the attraction between gluep particles, on 
a scale of 1 to 10? Circle one, then explain your answer. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 WEAK  VERY STRONG (GAS (CRYSTALLINE PARTICLES) SOLIDS) The gluep’s mass is___________. The volume of the gluep is about ____________. The density is _____________________. The color is ________________. The viscosity is ______________. Based on gluep’s properties, think of a practical use for it.

  27. Why is Graphite soft and Diamond hard if both are pure carbon? Carbon alone forms the familiar substances graphite and 
diamond. Both graphite and diamond are made only of 
carbon atoms. Graphite is very soft and slippery. Diamond is the hardest 
substance known to man. If both are made only of carbon 
what gives them different properties? The answer lies in the way the carbon atoms form bonds 
with each other.

  28. Notice that graphite is 
layered. While there are strong 
covalent bonds 
between carbon atoms 
in each layer, there are 
only weak forces 
between layers. This allows layers of 
carbon to slide over 
each other in graphite.

  29. On the other hand, in 
diamond each carbon atom is 
the same distance to each of 
its neighboring carbon atoms. In this rigid network atoms 
cannot move. This explains why diamonds 
are so hard and have such a 
high melting point.

  30. you gotta luv sigh- We are all connected.

  31. SPECIAL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES MALLEABILITY  ELASTICITY   COHESION  TENSILE STRENGTH
 BRITTLENESS  ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY  HARDNESS   VISCOSITY  SURFACE TENSION  ADHESION  DUCTILE The ability of metals to be hammered into thin sheets ___________ Can be stretched, but will retain its normal shape _____________ The particles of a liquid “stick” to each other ________________ Describes how strong something is when pulled ______________ A liquid’s surface forms a “skin” due to cohesion between molecules _________________ ___________________ The ability to move electrons through the substance_____________ The property of breaking apart when struck or bent ____________ The resistance to being scratched __________ The resistance of a liquid to flowing or being poured ___________ The liquid particles “stick” to the side of a container ______________

  32. SPECIAL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES MALLEABILITY  ELASTICITY   COHESION  TENSILE STRENGTH
 BRITTLENESS  ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY  HARDNESS   VISCOSITY  SURFACE TENSION  ADHESION  DUCTILE The ability of metals to be hammered into thin sheets _ductile____ Can be stretched, but will retain its normal shape ____elastiscity____ The particles of a liquid “stick” to each other _____cohesion____ Describes how strong something is when pulled __tensile strength____ A liquid’s surface forms a “skin” due to cohesion between molecules _____surface__ _____tension_______ The ability to move electrons through the substance__conductivity____ The property of breaking apart when struck or bent __brittle__________ The resistance to being scratched ___hardness_______ The resistance of a liquid to flowing or being poured __viscosity_____ The liquid particles “stick” to the side of a container __adhesion______

  33. Physical Properties Physical properties are characteristics of matter 
that can be measured and observed. Properties help identify a substance and help 
determine the uses of a material.

  34. Properties Lab copper strip iron cylinder water in vial chalk lead foil rubber band corn syrup (green) purple latex band Wax chunk conditioner in vial plastic bouncy ball lead sinker lead foil mineral oil muscovite crystal basalt rock silicon lump

  35. Uses for Muscovite (mica) Muscovite is a valuable mineral, but it is not known for its aesthetic beauty and will never been seen as a gem. Its first known use was in Old Russia as a glass. This glass was termed muscovy glass. Muscovite was used in this purpose due to its transparent crystals and its ability to cleave into thin sheets. Sheet muscovite is used as an insulating material in electrical apparatuses due to its dielectric and heat resistant properties (Hurbut & Klein Pg. 517). It was also used in this fashion as furnace doors, but its use in this capacity is not as common today because of modern technology alternatives. Muscovite can be ground up and used in many products. The ground muscovite is used in wallpaper to give it a shiny luster. It can also be used as a glitter and in makeup in a similar fashion, as well as, a fireproofing agent, fillers, and a lubricant in oil. http://www.emporia.edu/earthsci/amber/go336/pepper/#uses Back

  36. Uses for Basalt Rock Rock Type: igneous (extrusive/volcanic) Distinguishing Characteristics: red-brown to black, frothy with small visible holes where gas escaped while the lava cooled. Origin of your Samples: Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario Uses: Basalt is crushed and used as crushed stone, concrete aggregate and railroad ballast. Basalt fibres are used in the production of high quality textile fibres, floor tiles, basalt plastic reinforcement bars, basalt fibre roofing felt and glass wool (fibre glass). http://www.pdac.ca/miningmatters/teachers/resources-
rock.html Back

  37. Uses for Silicon doped with boron, gallium, phosphorus, or arsenic, etc. to produce silicon for use in transistors, solar cells, rectifiers, and other electronic solid-state devices silica, as sand, is a principal ingredient of glass, a material with 
excellent mechanical, optical, thermal, and electrical properties Uses: computer chips lubricants used to make concrete and bricks used in medicine for silicone implants http://www.webelements.com/webelements/scholar/elements/silicon/
uses.html Back

  38. Concepts and key terms to explore: Malleable  Mass Density (D=M/V) Elasticity Volume Surface tension (cohesion)  Ductile Viscosity (high or low resistance to flowing) Electrical conductivity Brittle Soft or hard (resistance to being scratched or dented) Luster (metallic, dull, shiny, waxy) Translucent, transparent, opaque Magnetic

  39. Solid Metals copper examples iron samples lead foil lead sinker paper clip Solid Nonmetals (Crystalline) Chalk Basalt Muscovite Solid Nonmetals (Amorphous) Wax Bouncy Ball Rubber band Silicon Purple latex band Liquids Water Conditioner Corn syrup (green) Mineral oil (clear w/ red)

  40. wax silicon lump iron ball liquids: clear green clear w/red white Copper foil, pipe and wire synthetic rubber lead foil, lump

  41. Solid Metals (strip, wire, pipe, raw) copper samples-malleable, ductile, luster is shiny, can be scratched, conductor iron samples- dense, rusts easily in air, hard, resistant to scratching, conductor lead samples- heavy and dense, hard, luster is shiny, conductor Uses of copper Uses of iron Uses of lead

  42. Solid Nonmetals(Crystalline) Chalk- soft, brittle, white, non-conductor Basalt-hard, resists scratching, dark, dense, non-conductor Muscovite-brittle, splits into layers, fairly translucent, non-conductor Uses for chalk uses of basalt rock Uses of muscovite

  43. Solid Nonmetals (Amorphous) Wax- Opaque, brittle, soft (scratch able), non-conductor Bouncy Ball- elastic, soft, non-conductor Rubber band- elastic, stretchable, not malleable, non-conductor Latex- soft, stretchy, elasticity, purple, low luster Silicon- non conductor, luster is shiny, silky, lubricant feel uses for wax uses of rubber bands Uses of silicon

  44. Liquids Water- low viscosity, high fluidity, clear, 
odorless Conditioner- very high viscosity, very low 
fluidity, white, opaque Mineral oil-medium viscosity, medium fluidity. Clear, "oily", odor Corn syrup- thick viscosity, low fluidity, usually clear or dark colored (green in lab)

  45. Outdoor Observation Project due a week from Monday!! Outdoor Observation Project due a week from Monday!! Outdoor Observation Project due a week from Monday!!