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Counting immigrants and expatriates : a new perspective (Published in « Trends in International Migration » OECD 2005). Jean-Christophe Dumont and Georges Lemaître Directorate for Employment, Labour and Social Affairs, OECD

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Counting immigrants and expatriates : a new perspective(Published in « Trends in International Migration » OECD 2005)

Jean-Christophe Dumont and Georges Lemaître

Directorate for Employment, Labour and Social Affairs, OECD

ECE-Eurostat Seminar on International Migration, Geneva 21-23 March 2005

slide2

OECD Directorate for Employment Labour and Social Affairs, DELSA

Background

Methodology

Immigrants and expatriates

Next steps

Rationale for the project

  • Problems in the comparability of immigrant stocks
  • Concerns related to the international mobility of the highly skilled :

- among OECD member countries

- from developing countries

  • Limited availability of statistics on expatriates, especially by level of education and occupation
slide3

OECD Directorate for Employment Labour and Social Affairs, DELSA

Background

Methodology

Immigrants and expatriates

Next steps

  • An international database on Foreign-Born
  • Data collection and compilation
  • 29 OECD National Statistic Offices and OECD
  • Observers : UN Statistics Division, Eurostat, European Commission, ILO, UNECE
  • Data collection and compilation
  • Data are mainly from OECD population censuses and population registers
  • Data were compiled on :
  • - Immigrant population in OECD countries
  • - Expatriate population from all countries to OECD countries
  • - Migrants by origin / destination and educational attainment
slide4

OECD Directorate for Employment Labour and Social Affairs, DELSA

Background

Methodology

Immigrants and expatriates

Next steps

  • Definitions
  • The immigrant population
  • A literal definition => persons who have immigrated into their current country of residence => persons born abroad
    • Includes persons born abroad as nationals of the current country of residence
    • Takes no account of possible past migration movements of persons currently resident in their country of birth
    • Does not include native-born persons of immigrant parents
  • Alternative definition => the foreign population
    • Classification of persons can change
    • Confounded by possibility of multiple citizenships
    • Does not necessarily reflect a migration movement
slide5

OECD Directorate for Employment Labour and Social Affairs, DELSA

Background

Methodology

Immigrants and expatriates

Next steps

  • Definitions
  • Reference population
  • Usual residents by detailed country of birth, nationality and nationality at birth
  • Working rule for countries of birth
  • People born in states or territories belonging to the country of residence are considered as “native-born”
  • Education level (population 15+)
  • Less than upper secondary (ISCED 0/1/2)
  • Upper secondary and post secondary non-tertiary (ISCED 3/4)
  • Tertiary (5a/5b and 6)
slide6

OECD Directorate for Employment Labour and Social Affairs, DELSA

Background

Methodology

Immigrants and expatriates

Next steps

  • Limits
  • Data on stocks represent the cumulative effect of net migration flows over past decades
  • Imperfect, heteregenous and unknown coverage of certain categories of migrants : undocumented migrants, temporary migrants, asylum seekers …
  • Some persons with unknown country of birth and/or educational level
  • Specific hypotheses for some countries (Japan, Korea, Germany)
  • Problems for decomposed / recomposed countries of origin
slide7

Background

Methodology

Immigrants and expatriates

Next steps

7

OECD Directorate for Employment Labour and Social Affairs, DELSA

  • Statistics on foreign born population in OECD countries provides a new -and more accurate- picture of migration

Percentage of Percentage

foreign born of foreigners

AUS

CAN

CZE

FRA

GRC

NLD

SWE

USA

23.0

19.3

1.2

5.6

7.0

4.2

5.3

12.3

7.4

5.3

4.5

10.0

10.3

10.1

12.0

6.6

slide8

Background

Methodology

Immigrants and expatriates

Next steps

8

OECD Directorate for Employment Labour and Social Affairs, DELSA

  • A significant share of foreign born in OECD countries originate from other OECD countries (36.3 million people or 46% of all foreign born)
slide9

Background

Methodology

Immigrants and expatriates

Next steps

Expatriates as a percentage of all native-born, OECD countries

Total population and highly skilled

25.0

Total population

Highly skilled

20.0

15.0

10.0

9

OECD Directorate for Employment Labour and Social Affairs, DELSA

5.0

0.0

AUT

PRT

FRA

IRL

NZL

FIN

JPN

ESP

AUS

BEL

USA

MEX

KOR

CAN

DNK

DEU

HUN

LUX

NOR

POL

GBR

TUR

NLD

GRC

CHE

SWE

CSFR

  • The incidence of expatriation varies substantially from one country to another
slide10

Background

Methodology

Immigrants and expatriates

Next steps

10

OECD Directorate for Employment Labour and Social Affairs, DELSA

  • Highly skilled international migration is an important part of all migration flows

Percentage of persons with tertiary education in selected OECD countries

Native-born Foreign Born Expatriates

CAN31.538.040.0

CHE18.123.738.4

FRA16.918.140.4

HUN10.719.8 30.0

KOR26.732.2 43.6

NZL27.031.6 42.9

SWE22.824.2 38.9

USA26.925.947.2

slide11

Background

Methodology

Immigrants and expatriates

Next steps

11

OECD Directorate for Employment Labour and Social Affairs, DELSA

  • Asia, Europe and Africa are the major regions of origin for highly skilled
slide12

Background

Methodology

Immigrants and expatriates

Next steps

12

OECD Directorate for Employment Labour and Social Affairs, DELSA

  • Within the OECD area, only eight countries are net beneficiaries from the migration of the highly educated ...
slide13

Background

Methodology

Immigrants and expatriates

Next steps

13

OECD Directorate for Employment Labour and Social Affairs, DELSA

  • … but, as whole, most OECD countries benefit from the international mobility of the highly skilled
slide14

Background

Methodology

Immigrants and expatriates

Next steps

  • Some countries, especially in the Caribbean and in Africa, face significant emigration rates of their elites (sometimes exceeding 50%)

OECD Directorate for Employment Labour and Social Affairs, DELSA

14

slide15

15

OECD Directorate for Employment Labour and Social Affairs, DELSA

Background

Methodology

Immigrants and expatriates

Next steps

  • The database is available online on the OECD website
  • www.oecd.org/document/16/0,2340,en_2649_33931_33865936_1_1_1_1,00.html
  • The next phase of the project involve collection of more detailed information on demographic (gender, age, duration of stay) and labor market variables (employment status, occupation, sector of activity)
  • Data to be used for studies on specific occupations (e.g. Health; ICT; Education)
  • Extending the database to selected non-member countries ?