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Acts before separation of Sub-continent. Act of 1861. Back Ground. Complete control of British on political system. East India company over powered the political system. Muslims were facing disrespect. Indians had no political representation.

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back ground
Back Ground
  • Complete control of British on political system.
  • East India company over powered the political system.
  • Muslims were facing disrespect.
  • Indians had no political representation.
  • Sir. Syed Ahmed Khan suggested to include Indian people in political system.
act of 18611
Act of 1861
  • First ever constitutional structure.
  • Indian people were included in governor general's council.
  • The number of the members of the legislative councils was increased.
act of 18612
Act of 1861
  • The governor was given authority to nominate at least six persons to his Council
  • The nominated members could not criticize the actions of Council
  • The governor-general could issue ordinance and was authorized to veto provincial legislation
act of 1861 results
Act of 1861 (Results)
  • The enforcement of Legislative Council Act of 1861 was the first step taken for the constitutional reforms in India.
  • It provided in spite of its limited scope, an opportunity to the Indian people to safeguard their political interests.
  • Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was nominated as the member of the legislative council
back ground1
Back Ground
  • All Indian National Congress was founded in 1885
  • Iord Ripon (1880-1884)
  • Liberal Government in England
  • Lord Dufferin appointed a committee to examine the issues and make a report.
  • The Indian Councils Act of 1892 was the result of the recommendations.
act of 18921
Act of 1892
  • Expansion in the size of the Governor General's legislative council.
  • The members were to be nominated, subject to the approval of the Secretary of State
  • 16 additional members in the legislative council, 6 were official members, 5 were nominated non-official members and 5 were elected, one by the Calcutta Chamber of Commerce, and four from the four provincial councils.
act of 18922
Act of 1892
  • The maximum number of additional members of the Bengal Presidency was fixed at 20
  • and those of the North-WesternProvince
  • and Oudh at 15.
results
Results
  • The Indian Councils Act of 1892 was significant in a sense that it not only increased the number of non-official members of the legislative bodies both at the provincial and national levels
  • Introduced the principle of election in a limited way through such constituencies as municipal bodies
act of 1909
Act of 1909
  • Back Ground
  • Defects
  • Overall Look
back ground2
Back Ground
  • demands for the separate electorate was conceded
  • the preparation of separate electoral rolls was ordered
  • the legislative councils were expanded
  • the authority of the council was increased
  • the viceroy council’s membership at sixty members
  • the membership of the provinces of Bengal ,Bihar , Bombay and orissa was fixed at fifty members were as the membership of the provinces of Punjab, & Assam was fixed at 30 members
  • the Indians were included in the executive council of the viceroy and in the provincial executive councils
  • the local bodies , trade unions and universities were allowed to elect their member
  • lt. governors were appointed in Bengal , Bombay and madras.
defects
Defects
  • Did not provide for mode of electing the representatives
  • The voting rights were squeezed
  • The authority of elected were negligible
  • The nominated members were in majority
  • Provincial expenditure were controlled by the central government
overall look
Overall Look
  • Any how no one can deny the importance and utility of reforms. As it acceded the Muslims, their much cherished demand &
  • Separate electorate in the provinces
  • Conferred on the Muslims the double vote
  • Gave imputes to the constitution in the India
  • Amazing political triumph
  • Muslim league performed in the commendable manner
back ground3
Back Ground
  • S.A.ROWalt
  • STOP POLITICAL ACTIVITIES
  • QUAID AZAM RESIGNED
  • INCIDENT OF JALLIANWALA BAGH
response
Response
  • EDWIN MONTAGUE
  • MONTAGUE –CHELMSFORD REFORMS
act of 19191
Act of 1919
  • Bicameral legislature was established in the center .
  • The upper house was know as council of state and lower house was knows as central legislative assembly.
  • The membership of upper house was fixed at 60 member while the lower house consisted of 146 members.
  • The upper house was elected for 5 years and he lower house for 3 years.
  • Separate electorate was retained for the Muslims.
slide20

In government, bicameralism is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers.

Thus, a bicameral parliament or bicameral legislature is a parliament or legislature which consists of two chambers or Houses.

The relationship between the two chambers varies; in some cases, they have equal power,

while in others, one chamber is clearly superior to the other.

slide21

Some political scientists believe that bicameralism makes meaningful political reforms more difficult to achieve and increases the risk of deadlock.

This risk of deadlock is greater in cases where both chambers have equal powers.

Others argue strongly for the merits of the 'checks and balances' provided by the bicameral model, which they believe helps prevent ill-considered legislation from being passed into law.

act of 19192
Act of 1919
  • Self-government would be established gradually in India.
  • The system of ‘dyarchy’ was introduced at the provincial level.
  • By this system the provincial subjects were divide d into two categories as the ‘transferred’ and ‘reserved subjects’
  • The subjects were divided between the center and provinces. The central subjects were defenses, foreign affairs, currency ,railways and telecommunication.
  • The provincial subject included Education , Health ,Irrigation and local government.
back ground4
Back Ground
  • After the failure of the Third Round Table Conference, the British government gave the Joint Select Committee the task of formulating the new Act for India.
  • The Committee comprised of 16 members each from the House of Commons and House of Lords, 20 representatives from British India and seven from the princely states.
  • Lord Linlithgow was appointed as the president ofthe Committee
act of 1935
Act of 1935
  • A Federation of India was promised for, comprising both provinces and states.
  • The provisions of the Act establishing the federal central government were not to go into operation until a specified number of rulers of states had signed Instruments of Accession.
  • Since, this did not happen, the central government continued to function in accordance with the 1919 Act and only the part of the 1935 Act dealing with the provincial governments went into operation.
  • The Governor General remained the head of the central administration and enjoyed wide powers concerning administration, legislation and finance.
  • No finance bill could be placed in the Central Legislature without the consent of the Governor General.
act of 19351
Act of 1935
  • The Federal Legislature was to consist of two houses, the Council ofState (Upper House) and the Federal Assembly (Lower House).
  • The Council of State was to consist of 260 members, out of whom 156 were to be elected from the British India and 104 to be nominated by the rulers of princely states.
  • The Federal Assembly was to consist of 375 members; out of which 250 were to be elected by the Legislative Assemblies of the British Indian provinces while 125 were to be nominated by the rulers of princely states.
  • The Central Legislature had the right to pass any bill, but the billrequired the approval of the Governor General before it became Law. On the other hand Governor General had the power to frame ordinances.
act of 19352
Act of 1935
  • The Secretary of State was not expected to interfere in matters that the Governor dealt with, with the help of Indian Ministers.
  • The provinces were given autonomy with respect to subjects delegated to them.
  • Diarchy, which had been established in the provinces by the Act of 1919, was to be established at the Center. However it came to an end in the provinces.
  • Two new provinces Sindh and Orissa were created.
act of 19353
Act of 1935
  • Reforms were introduced in N. W. F. P. as were in the other provinces.Separate electorates were continued as before.
  • One-third Muslim representation in the Central Legislature was guaranteed.
  • Autonomous provincial governments in 11 provinces, under ministries responsible to legislatures, would be setup.
  • Burma and Aden were separated from India.
act of 19354
Act of 1935
  • The Federal Court was established in the Center.
  • The Reserve Bank of India was established.
results1
Results
  • Both the Indian National Congress and the Muslim League opposed the Act, butparticipated in the provincial elections of winter 1936-37.
  • At the time of independence, the two dominions of India and Pakistan accepted the Act of 1935.