Operant Principles (aka: Behavior Management) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Operant Principles (aka: Behavior Management)

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  1. Operant Principles(aka: Behavior Management) Dr. Ayers HPHE 4480 Western Michigan University

  2. Sustaining Program Effect Ultimate goal of a physical education program What will students need to develop? Physical Skills Knowledge Personal Social Skills What type of skill is associated with management? What is the ultimate goal of the teacher regarding student management?

  3. Lesson Outcomes Identify components of behavioral analysis applicable in physical activity contexts Behavioral contingency Reinforcement Procedures Reinforcement Schedule Reinforcement Hierarchy Punishment

  4. Behavioral Contingency (outcome) Response SD---------------->R--------------->C Discriminating Stimulus Consequence

  5. Discriminating Stimulus Instructional Setting Environment in which the response occurs Set of controllable circumstances Created by the instructor Physical setting, person, activity

  6. Response Action that immediately follows the presentation of the discriminating stimulus Window of opportunity; weigh choices carefully! Verbal Cognitive Physical

  7. Consequence Event that follow the response Reinforcer Punishment Law of Probability: Given the same circumstances, the same response will occur if followed by an event perceived to be desirable (pleasing) by the performer

  8. Reinforcement An event that immediately follows a behavior or response INCREASES the probability that the behavior or response will occur again under the same circumstances

  9. Types of Reinforcement Positive: Presentation of “something” that increases the behavior or response Negative: Withdraw or removal of “something” that increases the behavior or response Escape/Aversion from an event perceived as unpleasant

  10. Schedules of Reinforcement Continuous: Every time (Beginner) Variable: Every few times; no pattern Fixed: Every X times; fixed number Intermittent: Random

  11. Hierarchy of Reinforcers Edible- Consumable that meets a physiological need (water, candy, etc.) Tangible- Valued as a possession Token- May be exchanged Social- Verbal, visual Activity- Game, past-time Stimulus Control- Initiated by the student

  12. Premack Principle Give me whatIwant and you will get whatyouwant Pairing low frequency behavior with high frequency behavior Low frequency (not perceived as a favorable) High frequency (perceived as desirable/favorable) Shift the ratio: Higher levels of “low” required to gain access to “high” frequencies

  13. Reinforcement Principles Reinforce small, but successive, approximations toward desired behavior Reward frequently Reinforce immediately after, not before Reinforce clearly Attempt Correct response General v. Specific

  14. Reinforce consistently across behavior/ person 4:1 ratio (positive vs. negative or punishment) Feedback sandwich Positive, correction, positive

  15. Punishment Event that immediately follows a behavior that DECREASES the probability that the behavior will occur given the same circumstances Predominant form of control in educational settings Frequently misused Negative reinforcement: Remove whatever increases behavior (e.g., attention for misbehavior)

  16. Appropriate Uses of Punishment in Education Dangerous Self Others Disruptive Places others or self in jeopardy Defiant Directly to teacher Violates posted rules Destructive Property

  17. Punishment Guidelines Immediate Remove the student from the setting Maintain composure (time/space before response) Consistency Firm Time Out No peer interaction No attention-seeking behaviors Make sure this is not the goal of the student

  18. Find a Friend Share your 2-3 biggest things from this topic How can this information help you be a better classroom manager the next time you teach? Share a hands-on experience that you now see could be managed differently