A presentation by Alex Ricci And Caelan Murray-Leung Media
Key Terms Here are some key terms you should understand before we start our presentation.
Vertical Integration vertical integration where a corporation owns or controls all aspects of the production system from origin to consumer such as a transnational food corporation that owns the animals, hatcheries, feed mills, processing plants, packaging, and transportation companies.
Globalization \glō-bə-lə-zā-shən\ the state of being globalized; especially : the development of an increasingly integrated global economy marked especially by free trade, free flow of capital, and the tapping of cheaper foreign labour markets.
Noam Chomsky • Professor of linguistics, prolific pamphleteer, highly influential leftist • Known for his extreme views (e.g., that America is worse than Nazi Germany) • "The so-called War on Terror is pure hypocrisy, virtually without exception"
Lobbying • Lobbying is the practice of influencing decisions made by government. It includes all attempts to influence legislators and officials, whether by other legislators, constituents or organized groups. • A lobbyist is a person who tries to influence legislation on behalf of a special interest or a member of a lobby. • Governments often define and regulate organized group lobbying.
Global Media • We have changed from a industrial to a information society • almost all information we experience comes from media. • 95% of that media is considered mainstream media. • In mainstream media diverse views are not commonly expressed. • Media exposure is a major factor in shaping economic, political, social, cultural and environmental make up of the world.
Global Media • In a democratic society, information should be designed to help people become well informed and better protect themselves. • Access to allot of information does not necessarily mean people are better informed. • The information must be studied and challenged so that it can be understood.
Where Do You Get Your Information From? • Get into a group of around 3 or 4. • Discuss with one another where you get your information about the world around you from. • You have about 10 minutes to complete this activity • Once everyone is done we will share them with the class.
Media Ownership • In the first half of the twentieth century, governments used institutions such as the CBC to distribute information in order to protect freedom of speech and cultural identity, and diversity. • This was done to avoid commercialization. • The general public owns these institutions. • Unbiased debates and other programs of that nature are played on these channels.
Media Ownership • Now.. • huge transnational corporations control public airwaves in a vast horizontal and vertically integrated system of media. • These corporations use the airwaves at no cost and face few regulations. • The global media industries are dominated by a just a few companies.
Media Ownership In Canada • although the CRTC regulates media to ensure fair competition and diversity of ownership. A few companies still control the market. → → → → → • much of the news has become entertainment and is driven by ratings and profits. • Media owners tell us that people are not interested in serious issues. And that they only care about making money for their shareholders • Media corporations in Canada bell globemedia CanWest Global Shaw communications hollinger Inc. Quebecor Rogers Communications Torstar
Public Relations • Public relations is a multi billion dollar industry devoted to selling messages to the public. • public relations companies use many techniques to create an image and shape public perceptions. These techniques are polling, focus groups, watching young peoples actions and language through one-way glass. To track public opinion • lobbying is also used to make competitors product more expensive through tariffs and taxes or even illegal. I.e hemp and forestry.
Advertising • The good. • advertising provides a useful purpose providing information about products and services as well as financial support for many forms of media. • Allows magazines and TV to have low prices. • One more point. • The bad. • Commercials and the corporations that own them in many ways control the news and parts of the media. • With the increasing number of advertisements the issue of commercial pollution comes up.
Activity... In groups discuss some issues that your assigned company would try to influence in the mainstream media. For example if a story on the hazards that deforestation has on the environment came out the forestry companies would try to get that story pulled, by threatening to pull funding. Bell communications, Molson Canadian, McDonalds, and ford motor.
Advertising There are good and bad things about advertising and commercials.
The Role of Journalists • Journalists make useful information accessible to citizens so they get to know the wider world around them. • Journalists try to be fair and unbiased. • Good journalism is needed to achieve accountability and acts as a check on media control. • Editors tend to approve or alter stories to meet the expectations of owners. • Journalists in developing countries can be subject to censorship and death threats if they are reporting views on issues that are not in the interests of powerful groups.
Propaganda • the term propaganda is used to describe persuasive messages and the widespread promotion of a particular ideas. • Language is key to these messages people use “loaded words” to sell their idea and persuade the public. • Jargon and doublespeak are used to mislead and confuse
Setting the Agenda. • Noam Chomsky sees society as consisting of a political class of about 20% who are well educated and play a role in decision making. And do not get easily fooled by over simplification and illusion. • But the mainstream media takes advantage of the other 80%, they determine, select, shapes, controls, and restricts what gets reported in the news. • So the 80% follow rules, not to be challenged by critical perspectives or controversial ideas, but to be entertained. • Films about sports and military glorify unthinking obedience. • While they also portray stereotypical views of various groups. And tell us what ideas behaviours, and attitudes are acceptable.
Manufacturing consent • perceptions about what is known are not always accurate. This idea has been exploited by media industries as they shape public opinions. • Information presented in the news is often biased and misleading, missing a key viewpoint. • Ex. • Noam Chomsky, an activist from MIT points out in his books that while an authoritarian government can easily control the information received by the public. In an democratic government that is not allowed but the media providers do it for their own gain.
McWorld – A Global Monoculture • Global media is beginning to expand fast, not because of growth in providing public services, but because of the amount of profit that can be made, thus businesses invest in advertising to attract consumer demand. • When attitudes and consumption habits are similar over a large audience, it is easier to sell products to consumers because of the same interests into the same products. (I.e. iPods: everyone likes iPods, everyone WANTS iPods. • The spread of western culture is sometimes referred to as McWorld. It is known as McWorld, because of the vast growing of McDonald’s companies throughout countries.
McWorld – A global monoculture cont. • Cultural Diffusion: can bridge cultural divides to foster greater understanding among peoples exposed to foreign lifestyles, provide richer, more stimulating mix of world views, ideas, music, and art. • The problem with expanding consumer lifestyles is that it is greatly affecting the traditional craftspeople and artisans mainly because of the growing competition between companies that it is destroying smaller businesses.
What is Wrong with Common Sense? • Consumerism is the purchasing of possessions and consumptions that equate with happiness. • People are beginning to buy more and more things that they don’t really need. In a sort of speak, people are consuming so many things just so they can “keep up with the Jones’”. This means buying things that other people are buying. • Some analysts see it as a religion
Pop Culture • Pop culture is the collection of ideas that are popular, well-liked or common and create the prevailing culture. • It is reflected in every aspect of life, including clothing, food, music, and sports. • Pop culture is greatly displayed to the types of music people listen to. (I.e. there’s the group of people that listen to rap, those that listen to hip-hop, and those that listen to rock. • Paradigm Shifter
Getting wise to the Media • Media is everywhere, and is owned by many large corporations that are around in our world. • Media Literacy: is the ability to decode or deconstruct the “constructed” information that is received in order to find out the truth about the world and become better informed. • Media literacy allows consumers the tools to: • Access alternative viewpoints; • Look critically at powerful images, many of which are targeted at youth;
Getting Wise to the Media Cont. • Get a “big picture” and more accurate view of the world, as media tends to fragment it; • Be aware of the techniques used to create propaganda, “spin,” and how reality and public consent may be constructed; • Communicate effectively to get their own messages across; • Make wiser choices and better-informed decisions to become more effective global citizens.
What is Alternative? • Alternative is being able to seek different types of sources that allow someone to be fully informed • Helps synthesize with mainstream • Introduces new ideas into issue resolution – challenging basic assumptions • I.e. books, Internet, magazines, are all examples of alternative media
Activity... Discuss in groups where you can find some examples of alternate media sources.
Using Media to Analyse Geographic Issues • Analyzing geographic issues requires an informed and critical understanding of the nature of media, the techniques used, and their impacts. • Knowing where media fits into the structure of society and how it relates o other systems of power and authority is essential.
Just the Facts • Fact: Are objective, unbiased bits of information about reality that are inarguable. • Opinion: are judgments or views about reality.
Political Cartoons • Uses pictures to express an opinion or attitude
By: Alex Caelan &