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Biodiversity hotspots of primary producers at the global scale
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  1. Biodiversityhotspots of primaryproducersat the global scale • Alice Soccodato • In collaboration with: d’Ovidio F, De Monte S, Levy M, Follows M, Alvain S.

  2. Individuals allelicdiversity, activity rates, susceptibility, survival, naturalselection Species & communities: migration, dispersal, blooming, diapose, ecological niche, range size and localization, (di)synhcronization, (dis)equilibrium, (un)coupling, energy flux, matterflux Ecosystem: resistance & resilience, functioning & services gamma Why do we care about biodiversity? alpha beta Cadotte 2006

  3. “Everything is everywhere but environment selects” (Baas-Becking 1934) • Microbes can • bedispersed • universally but only • measurablewhere • conditions promote • theirgrowth.

  4. Species distributions and successions are based on a phase-space defined by energy and nutrients

  5. Which are the ecological controls of phytoplankton biodiversity in the (sub)-mesoscale open ocean? - biophysical mechanisms (role of stirring) structuring meso- and sub-mesoscale distribution of phytoplankton species or functional types, aggregation and dispersion; - mapping biodiversity hotspots and gradients by integrating remote sensing, models and in situ data;

  6. Methods Data: • Multisatellite data (altimetry, SST, Chl); • Darwinmodel (Follows et al. 2007; Barton et al.2010); • in-situ observations of planktonic communities; Analyses: - Physat algorithm: chl spectra phytoplankton dominant group (Alvain et al. 2008, 2012); - Lagrangiandiagnostics: surface currents transport fronts, mixing regions and origin of water masses (F. d'Ovidio et al. 2010); - Biodiversity measures: remote sensed, model simulations and in-situ data hotspots.

  7. Phytoplanktonbiogeography Follows et al. 2007 Physat

  8. Horizontal stirring and phytoplankton communities: towards the definition of a new biodiversity index high low Area-basedShannon entropy Index

  9. Global patterns of area-based diversity Hotspots by remote sensing Hotspots by Darwin Model

  10. Alpha vs area-basedbiodiversity Alpha Darwin model Area-based Darwin model satellite (De Monte S, Soccodato A, et al 2013)

  11. Alpha vs area-basedbiodiversity Darwin alpha biodiversityhotspots

  12. Alpha vs area-basedbiodiversity Darwin Alpha+ Darwin area-basedbiodiversityhotspots

  13. Alpha vs area-basedbiodiversity Darwin Alpha + Darwin area-based + Physat area-basedbiodiversityhotspots

  14. Alpha vs area-basedbiodiversity: in-situnano-microplanktonbiodiversity Alpha div. (AMT) Area-based div. (satellite) De Monte S, Soccodato A, et al.2013

  15. Alpha vs area-basedbiodiversity: in-situbiodiversitythrough taxa

  16. Alpha vs area-basedbiodiversity: in-situbiodiversitythrough taxa

  17. Biodiversityvs temperature Area-baseddiversity vs SST Metabolicdiversity vs T Stegenet al. 2012 Oceanicdiversity vs SST De Monte S, Soccodato A, et al. 2013 Tittensoret al. 2010

  18. Stirringcreatesenvironmentalheterogeneitystructuringphytoplankton distribution • Information on the alpha biodiversityof the wholephytoplanktoncommunitycanberetrievedfromjustlookingat the patchiness of dominant phytoplankton types • Patchinesshappears as a functional structure of the pelagicenvironmentwith possible bottom up effecton the trophicchain. Conclusions

  19. Any questions? I'm all ears! Thanks! Btw I’m a fenneck!

  20. Alpha vs area-basedbiodiversity Alpha Barton et al. 2010Vallinaet al. submitted Area-based Darwin model satellite (De Monte S, Soccodato A, et al 2013)

  21. Temporal diversity