What are two functions of the nervous system? What makes up the nervous system? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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What are two functions of the nervous system? What makes up the nervous system?

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  1. January 14, 2014Complete the following pretest on a separate sheet of paper ON YOUR OWN. This means you can’t talk to the people around you. • What are two functions of the nervous system? • What makes up the nervous system? • What is the difference between the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system? • What is the difference between neurons and glial cells? • What is the difference between dendrites and the axon terminal? • List three parts of the brain and their functions. • How are messages sent from throughout the body? • What makes a reflex different than a normal signal sent throughout the body? • What is the most primitive part of the brain? • List one other fact you know about the nervous system.

  2. Nervous System

  3. Functions of the Nervous System: • Long-term memory • Short-term memory • Thinking and decision making • Interactions with the world

  4. Parts of the Nervous System • Central Nervous System (CNS) • Made up of the brain and spinal cord • Controls all basic bodily functions and responds to external changes • Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) • Made up of all the nerves in the body • Connects the CNS to the rest of the body

  5. Motor System • Part of the peripheral nervous system • Carries out the orders from the brain and spinal cord • Made up of two branches: • Somatic Nervous System • Controls skeletal muscle • Under conscious control • Autonomic Nervous System • Controls smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands • Not under conscious control

  6. Parts of the Autonomic Nervous System • Parasympathetic • Resting and digesting branch • Deal with normal body functions • Sympathetic • Body’s alert system that kicks in when you are in danger • Fight or flight response

  7. Nervous Tissue • Made up of: • Neurons: carry out control functions, amitotic • Neuroglia also known as Glial Cells: support cells for the nervous tissue, able to divide

  8. Glial Cell Types in CNS: • Astrocytes: metabolic and structural support cells for the nervous tissue • Microglia: remove debris • Ependymal cells: cover the lining of cavities • Oligodendrocytes: make a lipid insulation called myelin

  9. Glial Cell Types in PNS: • Schwann cells: make myelin for the PNS • Satellite cells: support cells

  10. Neuron Parts • Neuron body: functions in cell metabolism • Dendrites: receive signals from the environment and other cells • Axon: generates and sends signals to other cells • Axon terminal: connects to a receiving cell • Synapse: space between the axon terminal and the receiving cell • Called a neuromuscular junction if the receiving cell is a skeletal muscle cell • Myelin sheath: lipid insulation that covers parts of the axon • Nodes of Ranvier: bare spots between the myelin

  11. Neuron Classification • Neurons can be classified by either structure or function

  12. Neuron Structural Classification • Bipolar: one dendrite and one axon • Multipolar: many dendrites and one axon • Unipolar: has two projections extending from the same end of the neuron body

  13. Neuron Function Classification • Sensory neurons: input neurons • Motor neurons: output neurons • Interneurons: carry information between neurons