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The Correctional Services of Norway
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  1. The Correctional Services of Norway Gerhard Ploeg Ministry of Justice and the Police, Department of Corrections

  2. Geographical facts North – South distance: 2,500 kilometres East – West distance: between 700 and 6 kilometres NORWAY = 1/20th of Australia 90 % of the population on 50 % of the area

  3. Demographical facts Population 4,7million - 320,00 km² - 14 per km² 21,2 million - 7,740,000 km² - 3 per km² Per capita GDP AU$ 66,500 AU$ 44,900 Source: CIA World Fact Book, May 2010

  4. A ”Scandinavian model”? Low incarceration rates Low recidivism rates

  5. Incarceration rates Average daily number of prisoners and prison – population rate in some countries N Rate 1. USA 2,304,000 753 3. Russia 862,000 609 100. Australia 29,300 134 162. Sweden 7,300 78 167. Norway 3,400 71 167. Denmark 3,900 71 184. Finland 3,200 60 Source: ICPS World Prison Brief, May 2010

  6. Sanctions for criminal offences (2008)

  7. Unconditional imprisonment (2008)

  8. Explanations Criminological factors Socio-cultural factors Correctional factors

  9. Reported offences (2008) In % Criminological factors

  10. John Pratt: Scandinavian Exceptionalism • A culture of • equality, • egalitarianism, • cohesion and • solidarity • A tradition of social-democratic welfare values • (and with a lot of money to spend on it) Socio-cultural factors

  11. A Culture of Negotiation Strong unions ”Strike season” Minority governments Conflict boards Socio-cultural factors

  12. Staff training • Two-year education at academic level • Psychology, sociology, criminology, law, social work • Conflict management, ethics and human rights • Post-training courses in various working methods and programmes • Salary during education Correctional factors

  13. Import model • Medical, educational, employment, clerical and library services are provided from outside • Continuity • Involvement • Budget Correctional factors

  14. General atmosphere • Obligatory activity • Work, school, program • No uniforms for inmates • Contact officer • Cultural activities • One man, one cell Correctional factors

  15. Implementation characteristics • Progressive implementation • Self-administration and responsibility • Principle of normality Correctional factors

  16. Administrative discretion • Correctional services decide on: • Type of prison • Conditional release • Electronic monitoring • Contents of community sentence • Prosecution of breach of condition Correctional factors

  17. A basis in theory and research evidence • Choice of types of sanctions • Accreditation of programs • Restorative Justice • Establishing and maintaining networks • Assessment instrument • Identifying needs and translate them into policy Correctional factors

  18. Addiction Family in prison Lack of education Unemployment Chronic diseases Homelessness Below poverty line Problems among prisoners 60 % 30 % 40 % 80 % 50 % 70 % 40 % Source: Friestad & Skog Hansen, 2004 Correctional factors

  19. Reintegration guarantee Health services A place to live A form of income Treatment Debt counselling Education ID-papers Employment The whole Government! Correctional factors

  20. Supporting desistance through social capital • Co-operation with voluntary organizations • Supporting positive relationships • Emphasizing strengths and resources • Stimulating active social participation Correctional factors

  21. Recidivism rates • All prisoners released and all community sentences started in 2005 • Follow-up period of two years • Recidivism = new conviction to prison or community sentence Source: ”Retur”, Nordic Research Group, 2010

  22. Public opinion REVENGE GENERAL PREVENTION SPECIAL PREVENTION REHABILITATION GENERAL PREVENTION REVENGE INCAPACITATION INCAPACITATION SPECIAL PREVENTION REHABILITATION

  23. The Reintegration Puzzle - Norway Public opinion Offender Socio-cultural dimension Inclusion Correctional dimension Normality Socio-cultural dimension Inclusion Correctional dimension Normality Service providers Local authorities Staff Policy

  24. Norway or the highway??

  25. Thank you for your attention! gerhard.ploeg@jd.dep.no tel. +47 22 24 55 73 www.kriminalomsorgen.no