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Golden Age of Spain. Conquistadors. - Hernando Cortes – 1519 – After colonizing several Caribbean islands, the Spanish turned their attention to the American mainland -Cortes marched inland looking to claim new land for Spain - Cortes and other explorers like him were known as conquistadors

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conquistadors
Conquistadors

-Hernando Cortes – 1519 – After colonizing several Caribbean islands, the Spanish turned their attention to the American mainland

-Cortes marched inland looking to claim new land for Spain

-Cortes and other explorers like him were known as conquistadors

-Aztec civilization – Cortes and his 600 men reached Tenochtitlan

-Montezuma II thought Cortes was a god – he agreed to give Cortes a share of the empire’s existing gold supply – Cortes not satisfied

-Despite being greatly outnumbered Cortes and his men defeated the Aztecs in 1521 – guns + help from Aztec enemies + diseases

-Francisco Pizarro – 1530

-Inca civilization – 200 men vs. Inca ruler Atahualpa who had several thousand

-Pizarro kidnapped Atahualpa who offered gold and silver for his release

-After receiving the gold and silver Pizarro killed Atahualpa which demoralized the Incas

-Pizarro marched to Cuzco, the Incan capital and took it without a struggle in 1533

-Spain’s Empire

-Provided great wealth at first

-Gold and silver

-Viceroys ruled the Americas– appointed by the Kings

charles v
Charles V

-Member of the Hapsburg family that controlled large areas of Europe

-Holy Roman Emperor and Spanish King

-Constant warfare to control his empire – religious wars

-Spain’s economic situation began to worsen

-Few industries

-Lack of food production

-Charles V decided to split his empire

-Charles V retired to a monastery

-Gave his brother, Ferdinand, Austria and the Holy Roman Empire

- Phillip II, his son, takes over Spain

philip ii
Philip II

-1556-1598 - Devout Catholic leader – like his father

-Wanted glory for Spain and to defend Catholicism

-Philip is King in the middle of the Protestant Reformation and the Religious wars

-1580 – King of Portugal dies with no heir and so Phillip II takes over Portugal

-By 1600 – American mines supplied Spain with about 340,000 pounds of gold and 16,000 tons of silver

-Spain’s great wealth led to what is referred to as the Golden Age of Spain

-Netherlands- Part of Philip II’s empire

-Dutch were excellent at sea and traders

-Area of religious tolerance

-Area of Protestant support that is unacceptable in his Catholic kingdom

revolt and defeat
Revolt and Defeat

-Dutch revolt against Philip’s harsh rule

-William of Orange leads the revolt

-English Protestants help the Dutch resist

-Queen Elizabeth I – leader of England at the time

-She had supported those who rebelled against Phillip II

-Phillip seeks to invade England and bring Catholicism back to all of Europe

-Spanish Armada of 1588

-English had better guns – fired ten rounds for every one fired by the Spanish

-Also made ships full of explosives and no crew and would send them out and let the Spanish blow them up causing a huge explosion

-Could not defeat Protestant England

-North part of Low Countries becomes independent of Spanish rule

decline of spain
Decline of Spain

-Growing population

-Decreasing riches from the colonies

-Expulsion of Jews and Muslims – lost a lot of good business people and valuable artisans

-High taxes and warfare

-Severe inflation – decline in the value of money along with a rise in the prices of goods and services

-Spain’s nobles did not have to pay taxes so the burden fell on the lower class

-This kept them from making enough money to start their own business

-Spain had borrowed so much money to fight these wars that when ships of gold and silver would come in they would have to ship it right back out

-Growth of rivals