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DARPA Agent Markup Language November 2001. Enabling “agent” communication at a Web-wide scale. Murray Burke Information Exploitation Office. Military Systems are Moving to the Web. Joint Battlespace Infosphere Theater Battle Management Core System BroadSword Air Mobility Command GDSS.

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darpa agent markup language november 2001

DARPA Agent Markup LanguageNovember 2001

Enabling “agent” communication at a Web-wide scale.

Murray Burke

Information Exploitation Office

military systems are moving to the web
Military Systems are Moving to the Web
  • Joint Battlespace Infosphere
  • Theater Battle Management Core System
  • BroadSword
  • Air Mobility Command GDSS
  • Center for Army Lessons Learned
  • Warrior Knowledge Network
  • Web Mapping Testbed

Army

JointGlobal Command & Control System

  • Global Command Support System
  • JOPES 2000
  • Advanced Course Of Action ACTD
  • CINC21
  • Joint Center for Lessons Learned

Air Force

  • Expeditionary Sensor Grid
  • Task Force Web
  • Navy Lessons Learned System
  • Navy Warfare On-Line Library
  • Air – Ground Combat System
  • Distance Learning Network
  • Logistics Bases Inventory Visibility
  • Items Applications On-Line
  • Master Header Information On-Line

Intelligence Community

  • Intelink
  • Joint Intelligence Virtual Architecture
  • Horus
  • Crypto Analysis Web
  • NIMA Geospatial Engine

Navy

Marines

web limitations
Web Limitations

Doubles in size

every six months

Average WWW searches examine only about 25% of potentially relevant sites

Problems grow worse as Web continues to grow

World Wide Web

Intelink-S

Intelink

Information on web is not suitable for software agents

Web searches return a lot of unwanted information

the evolution of the web

DAML

The Evolution of the Web

World Wide Web

HTML

  • Formatted for humans to read via web browsers
  • Formatted for machine readability but with very limited semantics

XML

Semantic Web

Machine readability with very rich semantics to support agents for:

  • Intelligence Analysis and Production
  • Military Planning and Operations
  • Software C4ISR Agents
  • Sensor Fusion

DAML is building the language and tools to realize the bold vision of the Semantic Web

web migration to new technology
Web Migration to New Technology

“In 30 years e-commerce will have become second nature. Lifelike, intelligent virtual assistants will be performing most routine transactions and simple negotiationselectronically on our behalf. More technological change will have taken place in that period than during the entire twentieth century, and the curve will continue to steepen exponentially into the foreseeable future.” Ray Kurzweil

100%

HTML

DAML

50%

XML

“Fifty percent of the content on the Web will be in XML format by the end of 2003” ……….Gartner Group

0%

2010

2000

2005

the bold vision distributed agents on the semantic web

Determine Force Mix

Get Weather Info

ProvideIntelligence Update

Coordinate Transportation

Order Supplies

Select Targets

The Bold Vision – DistributedAgents on the Semantic Web

“Make preparations to capture Bagram air base.”

query today
Query Today

WWW Hotbot

What is Al Qaeda?

The answer may be

somewhere in this

list of URLs

semantic query
Semantic Query

What is Al Qaeda?

A terrorist organization

Would you like additional information on?

  • Membership
  • Locations
  • Structure
  • Finances
  • Tactics
  • Other terrorist organizations
what s hard
What’s Hard?

Scale Scope and Lack of Consistency in Global C2I Networks

  • Diversity: Ontologies and Ontology Mapping
  • Markup Simplicity:
    • Automatically Derived Markup
    • Constrained Logic
  • Enabling Software Agents to Locate and Use Appropriate Services:
    • Services description language
    • Infrastructure: Yellow Pages, Brokers, Mediaters
  • Trust: Logical Proofs
precedents
Precedents

1995 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1998

2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2003

Dozens of knowledge representation languages

Dozens of application design languages

Odell

Booch

Rumbaugh

KREME

Loom

RDF

Rational

Rose

Paradigm

Plus

KEE

KIF

OMG

DARPA / W3C

DAML

UML

One modeling language

One Web KR language

daml foundation
DAML Foundation

Language to describe information

Tools for users and developers

Transition activities

DAML

  • Semantic Web
  • WWW
  • NIPRNET
  • INTELINK-S
  • INTELINK
developing the language
Developing the Language
  • Formal Logics
  • Knowledge Representation
  • Reasoning

AI Community

European

OIL Community

Local

Environments

DARPA

DAML

DAML + OIL

US – EU

DAML Joint

Committee

WWWEnvironment

  • HTML
  • XML
  • RDF

W3C

Web

Standards

WebOnt

WG

example ontology
Example Ontology

These ontologies accessed at remote locations

daml example markup
DAML Example (Markup)

<?xml version='1.0' encoding='ISO-8859-1'?>

<!DOCTYPE rdf:RDF [

<!ENTITY rdf 'http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#'>

<!ENTITY countries-ont 'http://www.daml.org/2001/09/countries/iso-3166-ont#'>

<!ENTITY cities-ont 'http://www.daml.ri.cmu.edu/ont/City.daml#'>]

<rdf:RDF

xmlns:rdf ="&rdf;"

xmlns:rdfs="http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#"

xmlns:daml="http://www.daml.org/2001/03/daml+oil#"

<daml:Ontology rdf:about="">

<daml:versionInfo>$Id: map-ont.daml,v 1.2 2001/06/16 13:44:29 mdean Exp $</daml:versionInfo>

<rdfs:comment>Map Overlay Ontology</rdfs:comment>

</daml:Ontology>

<rdfs:Class rdf:ID="TerroristEvent">

<rdfs:subClassOf>

<daml:Restriction>

<daml:onProperty rdf:resource="#name"/>

<daml:toClass rdf:resource="http://www.w3.org/2000/10/XMLSchema#string"/>

<daml:maxCardinality>1</daml:maxCardinality>

</daml:Restriction>

</rdfs:subClassOf>

<rdfs:subClassOf>

<daml:Restriction>

<daml:onProperty rdf:resource="#location"/>

<daml:toClass rdf:resource="#Location"/>

<daml:maxCardinality>1</daml:maxCardinality>

</daml:Restriction>

</rdfs:subClassOf>

<rdfs:subClassOf>

<daml:Restriction>

<daml:onProperty rdf:resource="#date"/>

<daml:toClass rdf:resource="http://www.w3.org/2000/10/XMLSchema#date"/>

<daml:maxCardinality>1</daml:maxCardinality>

</daml:Restriction>

</rdfs:subClassOf>

</rdfs:Class>

rdfs:Class rdf:ID="Terrorist"><rdfs:subClassOf> <daml:Restriction><daml:onProperty rdf:resource="#name"/><daml:toClass rdf:resource="http://www.w3.org/2000/10/XMLSchema#string"/></daml:Restriction></rdfs:subClassOf><rdfs:subClassOf> <daml:Restriction><daml:onProperty rdf:resource="#citizenOf"/> <daml:toClass rdf:resource="&countries-ont;Country"/> </daml:Restriction></rdfs:subClassOf><rdfs:subClassOf><daml:Restriction><daml:onProperty rdf:resource="#residesIn"/><daml:toClass rdf:resource="&countries-ont;Country"/> </daml:Restriction></rdfs:subClassOf></rdfs:Class>

agent based inferencing
Agent-Based Inferencing
  • If x is Bin Laden, he must be a terrorist
  • If x is a terrorist, then he may or may not be Bin Laden
  • If x is not a terrorist, then he is not Bin Laden
  • If x is not Bin Laden, he may or may not be a terrorist

<daml:Class rdf:ID=“Bin Laden">

<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#terrorist"/>

</daml:Class>

Implies

daml services ontology
DAML Services Ontology

Service

Resources

provides

presents

supports

Service Profile

Service

Grounding

describedBy

How to access it

What the service does

Service Model

How it works

developing the tools

Determine Force Mix

Get Weather Info

Provide

Intelligence Update

Coordinate Transportation

Order Supplies

Select Targets

Developing the Tools

Operational Prototype Tools

APIs

Report

Generator

Browser

Edit

Validation/Analysis

Inference

Visualize/

View

Parser

Search/Query

Import

Transform

Developer and User Tools

Semantic Web

language tools transition
Language & Tools Transition

DAML

Language

Specification

W3C

WebOnt

Standard

Feedback

Loop

Commercial

Tools

DAML

Prototype

Tools

Feedback

Loop

Near-term

C2I

Applications

Longer-term

Military & Commercial

Applications

daml language strategy
DAML Language Strategy

Ontology

Logic

W3C

Standardization

Proof

  • Formal Semantic Underpinnings
  • Model-Based
  • Axiom-Based

Trust

transition process
Transition Process
  • Focal Point for Military Early Adopters
  • 60 Attendees at First Conference
  • 100 Expected at 2nd Conference on 13-14 Nov

DAML

DoD Projects

  • Intelink Management Office: Horus
  • Navy: Expeditionary Sensor Grid
  • Air Force: Foreign Clearance Guide
  • Army: Center for Lessons Learned
  • Army: Warrior Knowledge Network
  • TRANSCOM: Global Transportation Network
  • Air Force: Joint Battlespace Infosphere
  • Navy: Task Force Web

(Identify Requirements)

DAML

Semantic Web for

Military Users

Conferences

horus
Horus

IMO paid half in FY 00, FY 01 and FY02 ~ $1.5M each year

intelink transition
Intelink Transition
  • Intelink has 150K users and expects 400K users by end of 2002
    • A controlled testbed, effectively a microcosm of the WWW
    • A quick military transition of emerging DAML technologies
  • Quotes from Intelink Management Office (IMO) Conference
    • “Terrific New Alliance With DARPA”
    • “IMO Has Linked to DARPA’s DAML Program
      • Tim Berners-Lee, Ralph Swick etc (The “A” team)”
    • “Large Opportunity For Web Technologies
      • Many Models On Internet
      • Many We Can Develop With DARPA”
getting the word out
Getting the Word Out

DAML LAB @ DARPA TIC

18 DAML Research Teams

www.daml.org

www.daml.net

PKI

  • Mail Lists
  • Web Server
  • Software Repository
  • Ontology Library
  • HotDAML Newsletters
  • Scientific American Article

Internet

Lots of Interest From the Rest of the World

(Almost Two Million Hits)

daml in 2002
DAML in 2002

DAML

Tools

Releases in

May and September

DAML

Integrated

Demonstration

&

Experiment

Horus

ESG

DAML

Language

Other

DAML Research Team

Metrics

Feedback

slide25

Weather

Web

Site

Weather

Ontology

Weather

Web

Site

Weather

Web

Site

DAML DEMONSTRATION AND EXPERIMENT CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS

Air Force

Lessons

Learned

System

Joint

Battlespace

Infosphere

(JBI)

Semantic

Web

Planner

DAML

Foreign

Clearance Guide

Markup

Navy

Expeditionary

Sensor

Grid

DAML

Rapid

Knowledge

Formation

(translation)

DAML

DAML

DAML

Air Force

Plan Markup

Air Force

Lessons Learned

Markup

Internet for demo

But could be SIPRNET

for real application

Unifying

Ontology

(GEOLOC)

DAML

CIA Fact Book

Markup

.NET

.ASP

Server & DAML

Query & Inference

Engine

Legacy

Data

Bases

DAML

AT2000

Military

or DoD User

Agents

Ontology

Editing

Tool(s)

Web Browser

Creates / Accesses

DAML

ontologies & content

Transition

Programs

Provides support

to military

user via his/her

Web Browser

Acts as proxies

for senior military

users to do

background tasks

Complex querying

and inferencing

about plan information

Actual DAML

ontologies & content

metrics

Now

1 Node

1 Ontology

3 Data Base

0 Agents

6 Months

3-4 Nodes

4 Ontologies

3-5 Data Bases

1 Agents

12 Months

4-5 Nodes

6-8 Ontologies

5-7 Data Bases

3-5 Agents

Metrics

Millions of Nodes

Millions of Ontologies

Millions of DBs

Millions of Agents

Millions of Nodes

Millions of Ontologies

Millions of DBs

Millions of Agents

2002

Experiment

Millions of Nodes

Millions of Ontologies

Millions of DBs

Millions of Agents

Vision

  • Millions of Nodes
  • Millions of Ontologies
  • Millions of Data Bases
  • Millions of Agents
  • Active on the Semanic Web