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Chapter Four. Breathing Emergencies. Why time is critical…. 0 minutes Breathing stops. Heart will soon stop beating. 4 – 6 minutes Brain damage possible. 6 – 10 minutes Brain damage likely. Over 10 minutes Irreversible brain damage certain. Distress vs. Arrest .

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chapter four

Chapter Four

Breathing Emergencies

why time is critical
Why time is critical…
  • 0 minutes
    • Breathing stops. Heart will soon stop beating.
  • 4 – 6 minutes
    • Brain damage possible.
  • 6 – 10 minutes
    • Brain damage likely.
  • Over 10 minutes
    • Irreversible brain damage certain.
distress vs arrest
Distress vs. Arrest
  • Respiratory distress – a condition in which breathing becomes difficult
  • Respiratory arrest – occurs when breathing stops
  • Normal breathing is regular, quiet and effortless. A person does not appear to be working hard or struggling.
signs and symptoms of respiratory distress
Signs and Symptoms of Respiratory Distress
  • Slow or rapid breathing
  • Gasping
  • Wheezing, high pitched noises
  • Gurgling
  • Skin is moist or cool, flushed, pale, ashen, or bluish
  • Victim feels dizzy or lightheaded
  • Victim feels apprehensive or fearful
normal breathing in children and infants
Normal Breathing in Children and Infants
  • Normal breathing rates in children and infants are faster than normal breathing rates in adults.
  • Infants have periodic breathing, changes in breathing patterns are normal for infants.
breathing emergencies can be caused by
Breathing emergencies can be caused by -
  • Choking
  • Illness
  • Chronic conditions, such as asthma
  • Electrocution
  • Heart attack or irregular heartbeat
  • Injury to the head, chest, or lungs
  • Allergic reactions
  • Drug overdose
  • Drowning
  • Emotional distress
asthma
Asthma
  • Inflammation of the air passages that results in temporary narrowing of the airways.
  • Asthma is the third ranking cause of hospitalization among those younger than 15 years.
  • Asthma attacks are often recognoized by the wheezing or whistling sound that is made when exhaling.
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
  • COPD is a long term lung disease encompassing both chronic bronchitis and emphysema.
  • Airways become partly blocked and the air sacs in the lungs lose their ability to fill with air.
  • There is no cure and it worsens over time.
  • The most common cause of COPD is smoking.
emphysema bronchitis
Emphysema & Bronchitis
  • Emphysema is a disease that involves damage to the air sacs. Exhaling is extremely difficult.
  • Bronchitis is an inflammation of the main air passages. To be diagnosed with chronic bronchitis, a person must have a cough with mucus on most days of the month for at least 3 months.
hyperventilation
Hyperventilation
  • Occurs when a person’s breathing is faster and more shallow than normal.
  • Often results from fear or anxiety and usually occurs in people who are tense and nervous.
  • Also caused by-
    • Head injuries
    • Severe bleeding
    • Asthma
    • Exercise
allergic reactions
Allergic Reactions
  • An allergic reaction is the response of the immune system to a foreign substance that enters the body.
  • A severe allergic reaction can cause a condition called anaphylactic shock.
  • Signals include –
    • Rash
    • Tightness of chest and throat
    • Swelling of face, neck and tongue
    • Person may feel dizzy or confused
croup
Croup
  • A harsh, repetitive cough that most commonly affects children younger than 5 years.
  • Cough can range from high pitched wheeze to a barking cough.
  • Croup mostly occurs during the evening or nighttime.
epiglottitis
Epiglottitis
  • Infection causing severe swelling of the epiglottis.
  • When it swells it can block the airway.
  • Most common in children between 2 and 6 years of age.
  • Hib vaccine has helped decrease the number of cases.
care for respiratory distress
Care for Respiratory Distress
  • Call 9-1-1.
  • Help the person rest in a comfortable position.
  • If the person is having a hard time talking have them nod or shake their head to answer questions.
  • If a bystander is present and can answer questions about the victim, ask the bystander instead.
  • Try to calm the victim.
choking
Choking
  • Choking occurs when a person’s airway has been blocked by a foreign object, swelling in the mouth or throat, or by fluids such as vomit or water.
causes of choking in adults
Causes of Choking in Adults
  • Trying to swallow large pieces of poorly chewed food
  • Drinking alcohol before or during meals
  • Wearing dentures
  • Eating while talking excitedly or laughing
  • Eating too fast
  • Walking, playing or running with food or objects in the mouth
choking in children infants
Choking in Children & Infants
  • Common cause of injury and death in children younger than 5 years.
  • Children should not be given hard, smooth foods such as raw vegetables until they are 4 years old. No peanuts until 7 years or older.
  • Food should be chopped into pieces no larger than ½ inch.
signals of choking
Signals of choking -
  • Coughing, either forcefully or weakly
  • Clutching the throat
  • Can’t cough, speak, cry or breathe
  • High pitched noises
  • Panic
  • Bluish skin color
  • Loss of consciousness
care for a conscious choking adult or child
Care for a Conscious Choking Adult or Child
  • Give five back blows and five abdominal thrusts until the object is dislodged and the person can breathe or becomes unconscious.
care for a conscious choking infant
Care for a Conscious Choking Infant
  • Give five back blows and five chest thrusts until the object is forced out, the infant begins to breathe on his or her own or the infant becomes unconscious.
care for an unconscious choking adult or child
Care for an Unconscious Choking Adult or Child
  • This care would be given –
    • During your check for life threatening conditions, when an unconscious person is not breathing and the rescue breaths do not go in.
    • When a conscious choking person becomes unconscious.
care for an unconscious choking adult or child1
Care for an Unconscious Choking Adult or Child
  • After your initial check, when your first two rescue breaths do not go in, re-tilt the head and try another breath again.
  • If your breaths still do not go in, you are going to perform a modified CPR technique.
care for an unconscious choking adult or child2
Care for an Unconscious Choking Adult or Child
  • Locate the correct hand position.
  • Compress the victim’s chest 30 times in about 18 seconds.
    • Chest compression depth – 2 inches
  • Look for a foreign object, if you see an object, sweep it out.
  • Give 2 rescue breaths.
  • If your breaths do not go in, repeat chest compressions until –
    • The object is removed and the chest rises with rescue breaths.
    • The person starts to breath on their own.
    • Another trained responder arrives.
    • You are too exhausted to continue.
    • The scene becomes unsafe.
care for an unconscious choking infant
Care for an Unconscious Choking Infant
  • There are some minor changes when providing care for an infant –
    • Hand position – two fingers in the middle of the chest, top hand on the forhead keeping the airway open
    • Compression depth – 1 ½ inches
    • Sweep the mouth with your little finger