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_______ __ ___ _____ __ _________. TOPIC INVENTION OF COMPUTER FULL FORM OF COMPUTER DEFINITION OF COMPUTER BLOCK DIAGRAM OF COMPUTER COMPONENTS OF COMPUTER SOFTWARE COMPONENTS HARDWARE COMPONENTS NETWORKING. SLIDE NO: 3 4 5 6 7 8-42 43-63 64-82.

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    1. _______ __ ___ _____ __ _________

    2. TOPIC INVENTION OF COMPUTER FULL FORM OF COMPUTER DEFINITION OF COMPUTER BLOCK DIAGRAM OF COMPUTER COMPONENTS OF COMPUTER SOFTWARE COMPONENTS HARDWARE COMPONENTS NETWORKING SLIDE NO: 3 4 5 6 7 8-42 43-63 64-82

    3. "Who invented the computer?" is not a question with a simple answer. The real answer is that many inventors contributed to the history of computers and that a computer is a complex piece of machinery made up of many parts, each of which can be considered a separate invention. Charles Babbage, an English mathematician, is considered to be the Great-Grandfather of the computer. Over 150 years ago, in 1837 to be exact, he invented a sophisticated calculating machine, and called it the "Analytical Engine.“

    4. C - CommonO - OperatingM - MachineP - PrimarilyU - UsedT - ToE - EnterR - Records

    5. COMPUTER:A programmable machine. The two principal characteristics of a computer are: It responds to a specific set of instructions in a well-defined manner. It can execute a prerecorded list of instructions (a program). Modern computers are electronic and digital. The actual machinery -- wires, transistors, and circuits -- is called hardware; the instructions and data are called software. The computer is a machine that can perform various tasks under control of the software

    6. BLOCK DIAGRAM OF CPU SECONDARY STORAGE MAIN MEMORY INPUT CU OUTPUT ALU

    7. Software components:such as the operating system and user programs. • Hardware components: the electronic and electromechanical devices, such as the processor, memory, disk unit, keyboard, screen, and others. • Presently Useris considered as another component of computer.

    8. The software components consist of the set of programs that execute in the computer. These programs control, manage, and carry out important tasks. • the general structure of a program consists of: • Data descriptions, which define all the data to be manipulated and transformed by the instructions. • A sequence of instructions, which defines all the transformations to be carried out on the data in order to produce the desired results.

    9. System software • Application software

    10. The system software is a collection of programs that control the activities and functions of the various hardware components. e.g. OPERATING SYSTEM

    11. An Operating System is a software program or set of programs that mediate access between physical devices (such as a keyboard, mouse, monitor, disk drive or network connection) and application programs (such as a word processor, World-Wide Web browser). An operating system (sometimes abbreviated as "OS") is the program that, after being initially loaded into the computer by a boot program, manages all the other programs in a computer. e.g. MS DOS, WINDOWS, UNIX, LINUX etc.

    12. CPU SCHEDULING • RESOURCE MANAGEMENT • MEMORY MANAGEMENT • TIME MANAGEMENT • INPUT OUTPUT MANAGEMENT • TASK MANAGEMENT • SECURITY

    13. Single-user OS • Multi-user OS • Multi tasking OS • Multiprocessor OS • Real time OS

    14. SINGLE USER OPERATING SYSTEM: In computing, when an operating system allows only a single user at a time to access the resources. E.g.: DOS, WIN 95, WIN 98 MULTI USER OPERATING SYSTEM: In computing, an operating system that enables several users to access centrally stored data and programs simultaneously over a network. E.g. UNIX, LINUX MULTI TASKING OPERATING SYSTEM: In computing, multitasking is a method by which multiple tasks, share common processing resources such as a CPU. In the case of a computer with a single CPU, only one task is said to be running at any point in time, meaning that the CPU is actively executing instructions for that task. Multitasking solves the problem by scheduling which task may be the one running at any given time, and when another waiting task gets a turn. e.g. Windows XP, Windows Vista MULTI PROCESSOR OPERATING SYSTEM: A shared-memory multiprocessor (or just multiprocessor henceforth) is a computer system in which two or more CPUs share full access to a common RAM. A program running on any of the CPUs sees a normal (usually paged) virtual address space. REALTIME OPERATING SYSTEM: A Real-Time Operating System (RTOS) is a multitaskingoperating system intended for real-time applications. Such applications include embedded systems (household appliance controllers), industrial robots, spacecraft, industrial control and scientific research equipment

    15. CUI • (CHARACTER USER INTERFACE) • A method for interacting with the computer with the help of some specific commands. CUI-based computers are operated by the keyboard, using a combination of function keys, key sequences and by typing in commands in a prescribed syntax. E.g. DOS • GUI • (GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE) • is a type of user interface which allows people to interact with computers with images rather than text commands. A GUI offers graphical icons, and visual indicators, as opposed to text-based interfaces. The actions are usually performed through graphical elements. E.g. Winodows

    16. CUI

    17. DOS (Disk Operating System) was the first widely-installed operating system for IBM-compatible personal computers. DOS is a non-graphical line-oriented command-driven computer operating system. It has a relatively simple--but not overly "friendly"--user interface. Many tasks that can be performed in the Windows graphical environment can be performed much more quickly and efficiently by utilizing DOS commands. Also, most bootable floppy disks will boot the system directly to a DOS environment.

    18. INTERNAL COMMANDS: An Internal command, is a command embedded into the command.com file. E.g. : • COPY • DATE • DEL • DIR • EXTERNAL COMMANDS: an external command, is not embedded into command.com and therefore requires a separate file to be used. E.g. • BACKUP.EXE • DOSKEY.COM • EDIT.COM • ATTRIB.EXE

    19. GUI

    20. Windows was the first commercially available GUI Operating System from Microsoft founded by Bill Gates. • Windows, on one level, is the Operating System which runs the computer. But it's much more than that. • This Operating System is much more stable than previous versions. • Each User can have their own password accessed account, with their own settings, their own documents, and different levels of access. • Users with more than one computer can network them much more • easily.