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  1. Atoms to Ecosystems

  2. Environmental Science - systemic study of the social/cultural, physical and biological factors involved in the status of the environment

  3. Ecosystems form through the complex interactions of matter

  4. Atom • Molecules • Cells • Organism • Populations • Communities • Ecosystems • Biomes

  5. From Atoms to Cells • Atoms, Molecules, and Compounds3.3 • Atoms:The smallest unit of matter that has the characteristics of an element • Molecules and Compounds form when 2 or more atoms join together by a chemical bond

  6. Organic Compounds • Organic Compounds:Complex molecules organized around skeletons of carbon atoms arranged in rings or chains

  7. Cells • The Fundamental Units of Life • Cells:Minute biological compartments within which the the processes of life are carried out

  8. Enzymes:Molecules, usually proteins or nucleic acids, that act as catalysts in biochemical reactions • Metabolism:All the energy and matter exchanges that occur within a living cell or organism

  9. Matter:Something that occupies space and has mass

  10. Energy:The ability to do work • Kinetic Energy:Energy contained in moving objects such as a rock rolling down a hill • Potential Energy:Stored energy that is latent but available for use

  11. Temperature:A measure of the speed of motion of a typical atom or molecule in a substance • Conservation of Matter • Conservation of Matter:In any chemical reaction, matter changes form; it is neither created nor destroyed

  12. Thermodynamics and Energy Transfers • The First Law of Thermodynamics:States that energy is conserved; that is, it is neither created nor destroyed • The Second Law of Thermodynmics:all systems tend toward a state of increasing disorder

  13. Energy for Life • Solar Energy: Warmth and Light3.6 • Photosynthesis: The biochemical process by which green plants and some bacteria capture light energy and use it to produce chemical bonds • How Does Photosynthesis Capture Energy?3.7 & 3.8

  14. PHOTOSYNTHESIS Sunlight changes Carbon dioxide and Water into Sugar and Oxygen Sugar is chemical energy

  15. photosynthesis

  16. Cellular Respiration:Sugar, protein, fats and nucleic acids (foods) are processed by the cell to release energy for cellular work.Sugar + oxygen makes carbon dioxide, water and Energy

  17. Cellular Respiration:

  18. From Species to Ecosystems • Population, Communities, and Ecosystems • Species:A population of morphologically similar organisms that can reproduce sexually among themselves but that cannot produce fertile offspring when mated with other organisms

  19. Populations, Communities, and Ecosystems • Population:A group of individuals of the same species occupying a given area • Biological Community:The populations of plants, animals, and microorganisms living and interacting in a certain area at a given time • Ecosystem:A specific biological community and its physical environment interacting in an exchange of matter and energy

  20. Food Chains, Food Webs, and Trophic Levels3.9, 3.10, 3.11 • Productivity:The amount of biological matter or biomass produced in a given area during a given unit of time • Biomass:The total mass or weight of all the living organisms in a given population or area

  21. Food Chain:A Linked feeding series; in an ecosystem, the sequence of organisms through which energy and materials are transferred, in the form of food, from one trophic level to another • Food Web:A complex, interlocking series of individual food chains in an ecosystem • Trophic Level:Step in the movement of energy through an ecosystem; an organsism’s feeding status in an ecosystem

  22. Ecosystem Abiotic Factors Physical Variables in an Organisms Environment Temperature Water Sunlight Wind Soil Disturbance Biotic Factors All Living Organisms Monera Protista Fungi Plants Animals

  23. Producer:An organism that synthesizes food molecules from inorganic compounds by using an external energy source • Consumer: A organism that obtains energy and nutrients by feeding on other organisms or their remains

  24. CONSUMERS THAT EAT Herbivore:An organism that eats only plants Carnivore:Organisms that mainly prey upon animals Omnivore:A organism that eats both plants and animals

  25. CONSUMERS THAT DECOMPOSE Scavenger:An organism that feeds on the dead bodies of other organisms Detritivore:Organisms that consume organic litter, debris, and dung Decomposers:Fungi and bacteria that break complex organic material into smaller molecules

  26. Nutrient Cycles and Life Processes Carbon Cycle:Carbon is the basis of all macromolecules that form life on earth • Carbohydrates • Proteins • Lipids (fats) • Nucleic Acids (DNA & RNA) Cycles Photosynthesis and Cell Respiration

  27. The Nitrogen Cycle3.16 • Nitrogen Cycle:The circulation and reutilization of nitrogen in both inorganic and organic phases Nitrogen is in Protein, DNA and RNA

  28. Root Nodule are formed by nitrogenfixing bacteria

  29. The Phosphorus Cycle3.18 Phosphorus Cycle:The movement of phosphorus atoms from rocks through the biosphere and hydrosphere and back to rocks Phosphorus is found in DNA, RNA and in all membranes of cells.

  30. The Sulfur Cycle3.19 • Sulfur Cycle:The cycling of inorganic sulfur as it is released into the air and water by weathering, emissions from seafloor vents, and by volcanic eruptions