The Agrarian Republic Chapter 9: Out of Many
Today’s Learning Targets • #2: Outline the communities on the Pacific and Atlantic Coasts in the 1800’s • #3: Describe the national economy on this era and the continued development of it.
I. North American Communities From Coast to CoastII. A National Economy • Today’s outline: pg. 269
Former American Colonies now states(Map 272) • *First and Second Census: 1790-1800: • Population grew from 3.9 million to 5.3 • *Growth by migration to the west • *Addition of new states: • Kentucky 1792, Tennessee 1796, Ohio 1803, Louisiana 1812, Indiana 1816, Mississippi 1817, Illinois 1817, Alabama 1819, Maine and Missouri 1820 • No one knew within 50 years that the US would dominate the continent. (Discussion ? #1)
Spanish Colonies • Spanish control weak as of 1790: Paper looked dominate in N.A; reality too much tensions • Peninsulares vs. Criollos • Remember; Frontier of inclusion. Now no “original” Spanish influence. • Established Missions(LA, San Diego,Sonoma) in a last ditch effort to protect Mexico from outside commercial influence, etc.
New Orleans & Louisiana – New Spain • Spanish control of New Orleans • New Orleans – large French population & half black or mixed race • International port ($3 mil. Worth of trading products/Tobacco, Rice, Sugar, Cotton, Fruits • and Vegs. • U.S. concerned with maintaining right to use Mississippi River • Pinckney’s Treaty (What was this again?) • St. Louis….Who would have thought it would • become the finest American city and gateway to • the west.
Florida & the Caribbean • East & West Florida – Spanish control of Gulf of Mexico • Caribbean - sugar industry – molasses, rum (80-90% to Europe) • Shared a lot with Southern US (Slaves) • Haiti Slave Rebellion – Toussaint L’Overture– stirred fear in U.S.
British North America • Canada – mostly Loyalists with exception of Quebec • After Revolution, British set up strong national legislature • Dominated St. Lawrence River, Great Lakes, etc.
Russian America • Fur traders – extension of Russian takeover of Siberia(Peter the Great) • Outposts along Alaskan coast • Leads to overhunting and decline in fur in some areas • Sometimes took fur by force from Aleut people but they also intermarried
Trans-Appalachia: Cinncinnati • By 1800 – over 500,000 lived west of Appalachian Mts • Migration: Principal feature of American Life (5-10% moved each year. Family affair) • Cincinnati was major trading center on Ohio River • Strong past as a military fort “Slaughterhouse” • Indian resistance broke after Battle of Fallen Timbers • Shipping more on Mississippi (Describe the hazards) • “Queen City of the West”
Atlantic Ports: Charleston to Boston • Only 3 percent lived in cities but most cities were sea ports • Philadelphia, Baltimore, Charleston, Boston, New York (Describe on white boards)
So…let’s review..Post it note! • Outline the communities on the Pacific and Atlantic coasts in the 1800’s.
II. The Economy of the Young Republic • North was more self-sufficient • South depended more on marketing crops overseas - Demand for tobacco & rice was static, needed something more • French Revolution affect U.S. • More food grown to feed those in cities • U.S. shippers re-export European goods to other areas in the world • U.S. enters the China trade • Stimulated growth of U.S. coastal cities
Shipping & the Economic Boom • Ship building – major industry • Americans entered the Northwest fur and China markets • International trade brought insurance companies, banks, brokers • By 1820 the U.S. was building a strong and diverse economy
Stop…Review time! • Discussion question # 3 • Learning Target # 3
Republican Agrarianism • Jefferson fears Federalists and industry would produce the extremes of wealth and industrial squalor – like Europe • His ideal was an agrarian republic • Needed balance of yeoman farmers • Needed land – more opportunity for life, liberty and pursuit of happiness • Thomas Malthus – overpopulation fears • Essay on the Principle of Population
Jefferson’s Government: “A “Virtual Republic” • Peaceful change of power from one political party to another(But….) • Elected on promise to reduce size of federal government – paid down federal debt • Cut internal taxes (Whiskey tax), reduced size of army, navy and government staff • Shifts costs to state & local government • Barbary Pirates – Tripolitan War
Let’s Role play! • “You have been elected the new Mayor of Mishicot. Before leaving office, the old mayor gave jobs to several of his political friends but the paperwork hasn’t made it to the personnel office yet. • A. Should you 1) honor the jobs promised by the old mayor, or 2) cancel the jobs since they aren’t “officially” in the system yet? • B. What are the possible negatives to denying these people their jobs? What are the possible positives to allowing them to take these jobs? • C. Would it make a difference if the perspective employees had worked against you in the mayoral elections?
An Independent Judiciary • Midnight Judges • Marbury v. Madison – • established judicial review • Made judicial branch as strong as legislative & executive branches • Founding Brothers (Ellis)
The Louisiana Purchase • Napoleon acquired LA from Spain – no longer needs it to feed Caribbean slaves • Jefferson wants to buy New Orleans • French offer entire LA Territory for $15 million • Doubled size of U.S. • Violated strict construction of Constitution • Maintained French culture in New Orleans per the purchase treaty -Primary Source: Was it Constitutional?
Incorporating Louisiana • Lewis & Clark – Sacajawea • Maps • Flora & Fauna • Indian relations
Texas & Mexican Independence • Spain loses control – • Uprisings and conspiracies to revolt • Russians in Northern California • U.S. increasing trade on Mississippi • U.S. begins trade in California - illegal • Mexican Revolution • Texas belongs to Mexico
Let’s Discuss • Learning Target # 1 • Learning Target # 5
Problems with Neutral Rights • British seized U.S. ships trading in French West Indies & carrying French goods to France • Impressment – “once a British subject, always a British subject” – opened fire on our ships – Chesapeake Affair • Boycott British goods – not effective • French seizing ships trading with the British
The Embargo Act • Stopped all trade – Extreme response to the problem – hurt U.S. more than Britain or France • Deep depression & widespread smuggling • Federalists gain some strength but Madison wins Election of 1808
Quick assess! • Create 250 word reflection on your evaluation of Jefferson’s presidency and how decisions made within his presidency will ultimately impact Madison, his successor. • This is free response. You need to develop the criteria for what makes an effective president and use evidence to support it.
Assignment for Friday: 10/26 • Read about Madison’s Presidency (pg. 286-295) • Be ready to discuss: • What challenges did he face? • What defined his presidency? • What new constitutional issues arose during Madison’s presidency?
Madison & The Failure of “Peaceable Coercion” • Embargo Act repealed • Non-Importation Act: no imports • Non-Intercourse Act 1809 • Macon’s Bill #2 1809: trade with whichever country promised first to respect our trading rights – French win
A Contradictory Indian Policy • Jefferson hoped for conversion & assimilation or moving Indians west of Mississippi(Did not foresee more expan.) • Good intentions but destructive to Indians(Promote Energetically) • Tribes were divided – some friendly, some not • Ohio River Valley and 5 civilized nations • William Henry Harrison – general on the frontier • Used coercion and bribes to obtain land
Indian Resistance • Tecumseh, the Prophet (Tenskwatawa) • Built Indian confederacy – halt land sales to whites – all land belonged to all Indians • no one man could sign away the rights of all • Battle of Tippecanoe – William Henry Harrison • Proof British were arming Indians on frontier • “Tippecanoe & Tyler too” – • Made Harrison a hero
The War Hawks • Want war with British • Stop impressment & assert our independence • Most from the West & South (Henry Clay and John C Calhoun) • Thought the U.S. could gain Canada and Florida • Deeply divided the nation by sectional loyalty.
The Campaign Against Canada • Great Lakes, St. Lawrence River, Lake Champlain • Oliver Perry – Lake Erie – only real success • Cut off British supplies to Indians • Other campaigns failed due to New England opposition • Canada never to be invaded • Map on page 291
War in the South ***Andrew Jackson*** • Invade Florida – Treaty of Ft. Jackson: Creeks lost over half their land(Even those who sided with Jackson) • Indian fighter • Battle of Red Sticks 1813 • Battle of Horseshoe Bend: killed more Indians than any other Indian-White battle • Jackson(Sharp Knife) & Battle of New Orleans • Month after treaty was signed
The Hartford Convention • Federalists come to an end • Secession threat – nothing came of it • Wanted amendments to Constitution • 2/3rds majority to declare war • No embargo over 60 days • End 3/5th representation of slaves • 1 term limit for president • President must come from a different state than his predecessor – Virginia dynasty
The Treaty of Ghent • Before Battle of New Orleans – December 1814 • Ghent, Belgium • No change in territory – didn’t settle anything but… • IMPORTANT • Drove out British twice • National pride & unity • Stimulates American industry
Okay, Let’s review • What do we have so far on… • Jefferson's presidency • Madison’s presidency • Learning targets
Tomorrow: • Finish reading Chapter 9: Monroe’s presidency and the Westward expansion • Learning Targets finish • Primary Sources: McCulloch vs. Maryland, Missouri Compromise and Monroe Doctrine.
Another Westward Surge • Eastern farmland was overpopulated – U.S. population doubled between 1800 and 1820 • Land in West was cheap – • could buy as little as 80 acres & Congress reduced the price • Indian threat was neutralized after War of 1812 • Transplanted people brought values west • Old Northwest like New England • Old Southwest like South
The Second Great Awakening • Camp meetings • Strengthened east-west relations • Helped Westerners create new institutions • New religions • Methodist • Baptist • Spurs utopian movement
Election of 1816 & Era of Good Feelings • Only one political party – Federalists disappear • James Monroe – reached out to other factions • Henry Clay: American system – South upset • Tariffs – 1816 first substantial protective tariff • Second Bank of U.S. • Money for canals, roads, railroads • Congress would not pass the last but supported the first two
Diplomacy of J.Q. Adams • Monroe Doctrine • No new colonies in Americas • Leave us alone and we will leave you alone • Used Jackson’s raid into Florida to pressure Spain to sell • Adams-Onis Treaty • Two British treaties • Demilitarized Canadian border • Joint occupation of Oregon Territory
Panic of 1819 • Land boom financed by speculative buying and easy credit • Second Bank of U.S. foreclosed on loans • Hurt urban workers already suffering from decline in trade and manufacturing failures. Want higher tariffs • Showed how commercial the U.S. was – not agrarian as Jefferson wished
Missouri Compromise • Admitting MO as a slave state would upset balance of slave and free states • Henry Clay – Great Compromiser • Maine is free state, Missouri is slave state • 36 degree 30’ line at bottom of Missouri to edge of Louisiana Territory • Above the line no slavery – MO is the exception • Below slavery is allowed